Inspirational Readings for Your Daily Walk with God:

Christian Mediation

 "These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so." Acts 17:11

"Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth." 2 Timothy 2:15

Why We Believe in Creation

not in Evolution

by Fred John Meldau

Chapter 11. 

THE MARVELOUS MYSTERY OF MAN

SO GOD CREATED man in His own image"  Genesis 1:26, 27.

            "I am fearfully and wonderfully made"  Psalms 139:14.

            MAN — a tripartite being of body, mind and soul — created in the image and likeness of God, is the supreme miracle and mystery of life on earth. 

Part 1.  THE BODY OF MAN 

            "Your body," says Dr. Peter J. Steincrohn, "is the WORLD'S MOST INCREDIBLE PIECE OF MACHINERY.  It manufactures, improves and repairs itself.  It has illimitable reserves."  The doctor is right: the average man can get along without his gall bladder, spleen, tonsils and appendix.  He can dispense with one lung, one kidney, two-fifths of his liver, part of his brain, most of his stomach, both eyes, ears, arms and legs — and still live! 

            As an "incredible piece of machinery," the body is highly complicated and efficient.  It is an intricate assembly of thousands of mechanisms working together is synchronized obedience to direction.  It contains chemical factories that process chemicals of countless varieties.  The body consists of trillions of living cells. 

            In the body are "a hundred thousand different kinds of protein molecules!"  These protein molecules are highly complicated. * Typical proteins are collagen, which provides framework material;  hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood cells; keratin, contained in the protective cells of hair, skin, and fingernails; myosin, which converts energy from chemical to mechanical form in muscle cells; and the innumerable specialized enzymes and hormones so important in regulating body activity.

            * To illustrate how highly complex protein molecules are: one molecule of hemoglobin, in the blood cell, may have in it 758 atoms of carbon, 1203 of hydrogen, 195 of nitrogen, 3 of sulphur, 1  of iron, and 218 of oxygen, making a total of 2378 atoms.  All of the other 100,000 protein molecules are also highly complex and ALL of them are different! 

            Each of the trillions of cells in the body is a LIVING ORGANISM — living protoplasm — and in order to carry on life processes they must convert food, air and water into energy and tissue and food for tissue.  These elements must be changed into such a form that they can be absorbed as food and be carried to all parts of the body.  This process is called DIGESTION.  Air must enter the body to oxidize foods; this is called RESPIRATION.  Altered food and oxygen are dissolved in the blood and carried through the body to hungry cells.  The heart pumps the blood to all parts of the body; this is called CIRCULATION.  Waste products, like the ashes of a furnace, must be removed; this operation is known as EXCRETION.  All of this highly complicated performance must have directing intelligence, and this is in the Central Nervous System, assisted by the Autonomic Nervous System.  Working closely with the nervous system are the DUCTLESS GLANDS which pour hormones into the blood stream when needed for the control of various activities. 

The Miracle of Conception 

            It is incredible but true that this amazing human body comes originally from just TWO TINY CELLS: the female egg (ovum) and the male sperm.  Conception — the instant when new life is created — takes place the moment a male sperm penetrates and fertilizes a female ovum.  Starting with the union of these two cells, as a tiny bit of living protoplasm, and sheltered in the mother's womb, this minute bit of life grows, divides and redivides, and develops — until finally it grows into the amazingly complex being called man. 

            Beyond doubt, this is the greatest miracle in nature, that "a SINGLE FERTILIZED CELL SHOULD HAVE THE POWER TO DRAW seemingly from nowhere THE 30 TRILLION CELLS OF THE VIVIPAROUS HUMAN, having all the necessary structures and organs that make up the body of man!"

            "The wonder of this miracle is deepened by the fact that while all the cells in the body started from ONE fertilized cell, the ovum, which was itself neither muscle, nerve, blood, or bone cell, each separate colony of cells produced by the process of division becomes an organ whose cells all have a ponderable and demonstrable DIFFERENCE between them and the cells of any other organ in the same body." — and different from the parent cells!  ("Theory of Evolution and Facts of Science," page 52). 

            Remember too that the male spermatozoa are incredibly small.  In one discharge of seminal fluid there may be from 200,000,000 to 500,000,000 spermatozoa — enough potentially to populate the entire north American continent!  Each spermatozoon is composed of two main parts:  The flagellum, or tail, and the cell proper, which is the head end.  It was PLANNED that way, for the flagellum is the "motor" that drives the sperm on its way to find and  contact the ovum.  When contact is made, the flagellum dissolves and the sperm head (the true cell) unites with the ovum.  The two fuse into one — and conception has taken place! 

            "The sperm with. . . .admirable FORESIGHT has with it a minute quantity of an enzyme, hyaluronidase, which has the ability to loosen the egg's protective sheath, and so permit penetration. . . .At the same time the egg's wall (also exhibiting some admirable FORESIGHT) goes through a drastic change, and it becomes no longer penetrable by another sperm assault,"  ("Wonders of Conception," Reader's Digest). 

            The ovum (egg) is 35 to 40 times the size of the head of the sperm; and yet the ovum is smaller than a period at the end of a sentence!  Though this ovum is a single cell, it is highly complex.  In it is the all-important nucleus, and in the nucleus are wonders untold, including 23 chromosomes — worm-shaped structures horizontally striped with bands of light and dark.  And — wonder of wonders — these chromosomes contain thousands of genes (estimates vary from 3,000 to 30,000), the "seeds of inheritance."  So infinitesimally small are they that

             "even the most powerful peering eye of the electron microscope cannot see inside the unbelievably minute chromosomes" and the far smaller genes.  (Secrets of the Human Cell").

 The Miracle of the Growth of the Embryo 

            "No mind," said Dr. Arthur I. Brown, "can grasp the wonder of the growth of the embryo.  One who has watched this under the microscope or by examination of the very tiny early embryos almost feels as if it cannot be real — such miracles simply are not possible!" 

            Two cells unite: the ovum and the sperm.

            At the end of a month, the growing embryo has its own circulatory system, at the end of the second month the fetus is only an inch long; at the end of the third month a bony structure is beginning to form; at the end of the sixth month the fetus is 10 to 14 inches long — but if born prematurely at this point it will not be able to survive.  During the seventh month the baby begins to move about, and two more months of prenatal life are added to complete the maturing process before birth.

            The moment of birth is at hand.  The mother's body reacts automatically to this great event, and "this fantastically complicated series of events have interacted, each perfectly timed, to produce the most superb of all achievements: a new human life."  ("Miracle of Birth," by J. D. Ratcliff). 

            We stand in awe in the presence of this super miracle: human conception and birth — the miraculous work of a wonder-working God! 

The Fallacy of the "Recapitulation Theory" 

            Evolutionists have developed a theory to explain certain structures and changes that take place in the embryo.  It is called "The Recapitulation Theory."  It states that "every creature passes through stages in its embryonic development similar to those which its remote ancestors passed through in evolving upwards."  Their slogan is — "Ontogeny (the development of the individual) recapitulates Phylogeny" (the development of the race).  Many people have been deceived into believing in evolution through these subtle, though false, arguments.  Their principle arguments are: 

            (1)  "Human life begins as a protozoan."  This is untrue.  We all know that human life begins with the union of TWO cells that are NOT "protozoa," but are the specialized reproductive cells of man.

            (2)  "The human embryo at one stage of development has gills like a fish."  This is entirely fallacious.  The so-called "gill slits" in the human embryo are NOT gill slits at all, but pharyngeal arches.  They have grooves, but NO perforations, as in gills.  Douglas Dewar, English naturalist, said,

            "In the embryo of a reptile, bird or mammal (including man) no clefts form between arches, which never assume the characteristics of gills.  It is clearly incorrect to call them gill arches.  The embryo of a higher animal never passes through a "fish" stage. . . . Embryology lends no countenance to the view that the higher vertebrates evolved from a fish-like ancestor.  It is only by putting far fetched and artificial interpretations on embryological phenomena that they can be made to fit in with the evolution hypothesis."  (page 49, "Difficulties of the Evolutionary Theory)". *

            * Gray's Anatomy,  a medical authority, says "perforation does not occur in the pharyngeal arches in birds or mammals."

            (3)  The human embryo in one stage of its development is said to have a tail like a puppy.  This so-called "tail" is simply the coccyx, or end of man's spine.  As the embryo grows, the coccyx is covered with tissues and muscles, and the "tail" no longer shows, though it is still there as the end of the spine.  The coccyx serves as an anchor for useful muscles.  So this argument fades into nothingness.

            (4)  "The human embryo bears a confusing and close resemblance to the embryo's of other animals."  This "resemblance" is purely superficial.  Close examination at any stage of development always reveals "striking differences."  NO TWO EMBRYOS OF ANY TYPES OF LIFE ARE EVER EXACTLY ALIKE: all bear characteristics of their own family or genus.

            Many students are deceived by the "schematized" drawings of overly-zealous evolutionists.  Some advocates of the Recapitulation Theory have not hesitated to forge 'embryonic connecting links.'  Prof. Haeckel, one of the earliest advocates of this Recapitulation theory, actually forged some features of his drawings, as "proof" of Evolution.  When tried by the Jena University Court, and convicted, he confessed,

            "A small per cent of my embryonic drawings are forgeries; those, namely, for which the observed material is so incomplete or insufficient as to compel us to fill in and reconstruct the missing links by hypothesis and comparative synthesis."  Then follows this startling indictment of other embryologists:  "I should feel utterly condemned. . . . were it not that hundreds of the best observers, and biologists lie under the same charge."

            And this is called "Science?"  We are under the impression that Science should be honest, and deal with FACTS — not falsifications intended to support a theory that can NOT be supported by facts!

            Many drawings of evolutionists are "schematized," "doctored," and changed, and many plaster of Paris casts of so-called "missing links" are "reconstructed" to make them APPEAR AS THE EVOLUTIONIST THINKS THEY OUGHT TO APPEAR, with no thought of what they actually are or were in nature!  They twist the facts to support their hypothesis. 

            At the British Association Meeting at Edinburgh, August 10, 1951, Prof. T. S. Westoll called the Recapitulation Theory "Sheer nonsense!" 

The Miracle of the Growth of the Body 

            Many changes take place quickly after birth.  Before birth the baby lives in water — in the amniotic fluid, in a sac — a planned device to protect the growing embryo.  At that stage the lungs of the unborn child are practically solid flesh; but as soon as the new-born infant gasps for his first breath, accompanied by vigorous crying, the air sacs in his lungs expand, and never again, as long as he lives, will they be entirely devoid of air.

            His heart gradually slows down from its furious pre-natal rate to a still rapid 140 to 150 beats per minute.

            He is born with a sucking instinct; for his very life depends on it.  And now a great mystery begins: the tiny 6 pound baby grows, and grows and grows — until he reaches maturity.  WHAT MYSTICAL FORCE MAKES THE BABY GRADUALLY TURN INTO AN ADULT?  No one knows; the only answer is, GOD MADE IT SO.  And why does the marvelous process of growth STOP at just the right time?  Why doesn't the baby grow to be 30 feet tall?  And what keeps the growing process symmetrical and at a uniform rate?  That is, why is it that one arm of the boy doesn't grow to be five feet long, while the other one, let us say, stops at 10 inches?  Why is it that the nose on the boy's face always turns down, as it should; what if, occasionally, it should turn UP, or be twisted SIDEWISE?  What a mess that would be!  If his nose turned up, instead of down, he would be in trouble in every rainstorm!  Fortunately, God has regulated the "growth mechanism," so that none of these theoretical monstrosities actually happen.  The growth of the baby into manhood is uniform at all times. 

            "Nobody can say why all parts of the body grow in such beautifully regulated proportions.  Look at the skin of a six year old, for example.  Why doesn't it grow too much, giving him folds like a hippopotamus, or so little that he looks like a balloon about to burst.  This is one of the INCREDIBLY PRECISE CO-ORDINATIONS OF NATURE."

            During its first twenty years, the human body grows to 'eight heads high' with a fantastic series of speed-ups and slow-downs, and the infinitely complex influences which change the tiny infant into the full-grown man or woman are interwoven with such astounding precision that even the most cynical skeptic must call it miraculous."  ("The Miracle of Growth," by Herbert H. Kenny). 

MORE MIRACLES OF THE HUMAN BODY 

Secrets of the Human Cell 

            (These facts are taken from the chapter on "Secrets of the Human Cell" in the book, "Family Doctor," published by the British Medical Ass'n., 6-58. 

            The body, essentially, is made up of trillions of cells — most of them ALIVE, and able to reproduce themselves.

            In a previous chapter we discussed the marvels of cell construction and cell life.  Human cells are similar in construction to all cells, having three principle parts:  outer membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.

              "Each human cell nucleus contains 46 chromosomes, with the exception of egg and sperm cells, which contain half as many.  Even the powerful peering eye of the electron microscope cannot see inside the unbelievably minute chromosomes.  But indirect evidence indicates that, small as they are, they are still large enough to contain 30,000 genes — the seeds of inheritance.

            These cells are so small, it takes 8,000 of them to make an inch, and 64,000,000 of them can be put in a square inch!

          " These 'bricks' (cells) from which all living matter is made, are able to perform chemical transformations that baffle the world's cleverest chemists, producing infinitely complex vitamins, hormones, proteins.  They perform striking feats of "biological engineering' — the outstanding example being the formation of the human ovum and sperm."

            There are five general types of cells in the human body — All coming originally from the first two specialized cells: the ovum and the sperm.  These cells are (1) the nerve cells, (2) epithelial cells, (3) connective tissue, (4) muscle cells and (5) blood cells. 

            In general, cells in the body have two main responsibilities: their own sustenance and reproduction, and their community responsibilities.  The first includes such responsibilities as eating and waste disposal, the second includes the responsibilities of each cell to all others.  Tiny cells in the pancreas, for example, produce minute amounts of insulin which control sugar use by all other cells.  Fat cells store tiny droplets of oil to be used for energy for the rest of the body.

            Researchers have "bumped into a number of problems which have so far proved baffling."  Here is one of the most mysterious: 

            "Since cells generally show a remarkable specificity — lung cells always divide into lung cells, white blood cells always divide into white blood cells, kidney cells always divide into kidney cells, and so on, WHY DOESN'T THE ORIGINAL FERTILIZED OVUM DUPLICATE ITSELF, instead of going through an amazingly intricate series of divisions and differentiations to produce a mouse, a whale or a man?  Cell students have found no satisfactory answer."

             Evolution has no "satisfactory answer" to this miracle; neither has modern science nor philosophy.  But there is an answer: GOD MADE IT SO. 

YOUR SKIN: The Largest Organ of Your Body 

            Your tender skin is far more than a protective covering: it is an organ "ranking with the brain, heart and lungs in its importance to human life."  It is the largest organ of your body, and one of the most important.  It has an average area of from 16 to 20 square feet. 

            There are about 2,000,000 sweat glands scattered over the surface of the skin — 500 to every square inch, except on your palms and soles, where there are over 2,000 to every square inch!  Thousands of MILES of very small capillaries are in the skin, along with many thousands of sensory nerves.  The skin also has about 2,000,000 sebaceous glands that produce sebum to lubricate and waterproof the skin.  And the skin has an intricate system of countless ELASTIC FIBERS that keep it smooth and firm, close-fitting, yet pliable.  ALL of these parts are highly "specialized" — created for a purpose.

            Your skin has three major levels: the EPIDERMIS (outer), the DERMIS (middle) and the SUBDERMAL (inner).  This "subdermal" is a subcutaneous fatty tissue, having a cushion effect.  In the lower part of the epidermis is a thin sheet of cells where most skin growth occurs.  These cells divide and form new cells constantly, which are crowded slowly upward to the surface.  The trip may take weeks.  On the trip to the surface each cell dies, and so the exterior of the skin disintegrates into microscopic layers of scales.

            The result is, "some twenty or more layers of scales form the outer surface of your skin — and lend toughness to it."  These invisible fragments of dead cells are constantly being rubbed off and replaced.

            Your skin was PLANNED to serve your body in these ways: 

            (A)  Your skin helps regulate the temperature of your body.  By "sweating" your body cools off.  Furthermore, when it is warm, the blood vessels in and near the skin enlarge and let the heat escape.  When it is cold, the blood vessels contract and conserve the heat of the body.

            So precise is this automatic mechanism that the average person in good health maintains a 98.60    temperature whether hunting in the arctic or fishing in the South Pacific.  So amazingly efficient is the body's cooling system, centering around the action of the skin, that if the air is dry and enough water is consumed, human beings actually can tolerate temperatures of from 2400  to 2600  for short periods of time!  This is hot enough "to grill a steak."

            (B)  Your skin, with the layer of fat underneath it, is in itself a remarkable INSULATOR.  Like the asbestos around a hot water pipe, it keeps the heats in and the cold out; or, if the surrounding atmosphere is hotter than your body, the skin tends to keep the heat out of your body.

            (C) Your skin, studded with nerve endings, is the principle organ of touch, giving at least six different sensations:  light touch, pressure, heat, cold, pain, and tickling.  So the skin is a highly complicated ALARM SYSTEM, constantly keeping your mind informed, by its contacts with the outside world, of sensations of pleasure and pain, enemies to the body, and friends.  Each of its millions of tiny nerve receptors is a combined "receiver" and "transmitter."

            (D)  Your skin helps in ELIMINATING POISONS, and throws off waste materials through the sweat glands.  There are 2500 sweat glands on each square inch of the palm!

            (E)  Your skin is a manufacturing plant: it makes new hair, and nails and new cells.  It continuously REBUILDS the surface layer.

            (F)  Your skin makes a special pigment — MELANIN — that shields you from over-exposure to the sun — and it automatically provides the amount needed.  An extra amount shows up in a "tanned" skin.

            (G)  Your skin is a combination of a sort of "leather jacket" and a "raincoat" to serve you from the elements.  Your skin is an "armor" of "overlapping fish-like scales, to protect the tissues of your body."  On the other hand, it is FULL OF HOLES (sweat pores) — and yet it doesn't leak!  Consider the miracle: your skin is so ingeniously made that it will exude sweat, but will NOT permit water to enter your body even though you are immersed for a long time!

            (H)  Your skin also maintains a delicate system of fine hairs that cover most of the body, though they often are too fine to be visible.

            ( I )  Your skin is an indicator of your emotions, as we all know.  We turn "red" with embarrassment or pale with fright.

            ( J )   Your skin is an indicator of your health:  undue redness may indicate fever, a sallow complexion and paleness have diagnostic value to your doctor.  Other skin changes and symptoms indicate diseases to the trained diagnostician.

            (K)  Your skin is a remarkably roomy "storehouse," for salts, sugars, fats, water, and other materials, when more is taken into the body than is needed.  Later, when needed, the skin returns these to the blood stream for transportation to the organs.

            (L)  Your skin is a first-class BARRIER to germs — until it is punctured or cut.  Your body is covered at all times with countless bacteria, waiting to enter your body and to do their evil work.  YOUR SKIN KEEPS THEM OUT.

            (M)  Your skin also has a marvelous chemical called KERATIN (a chemical similar to gelatin) that protects your body from infiltration by many inimical liquids, such as many oils, diluted acids, alkalies and other chemical enemies of the body.

            (N)  Your skin is UNIQUELY YOURS; it carries a tell tale identification pattern: your fingerprints.  They are never duplicated in anyone else.  Your skin is so much a part of yourself that though it can be transplanted from one part of the body to another, it is exceedingly difficult to successfully transplant to another person (except an identical twin).

            (O)  Your skin is an excellent doctor!  It repairs itself.  If cut or bruised, it begins immediately to mend itself.

            (P)  Your skin manufactures vitamin D in the presence of sunlight, thus preventing rickets.

            We have gone to some considerable detail to show what seems to be merely a covering for the body is in reality a highly complicated and efficient organ, that gives overwhelming evidence that it was designed and planned and made to function as it does. 

BLOOD: The Stream of Life 

            "For the life of the flesh is in the blood" (Leviticus 17:11).  Blood is not the simple fluid it was once thought to be.  In the last fifteen years modern research has discovered that "more than 70 different proteins" have been identified in it, not to speak of the various other constituents — the red cells, plasma, white cells and the platelets — of which it is composed. *  And the body is constantly manufacturing new supplies of these products to replace the old.  A human adult produces about 140 million NEW RED BLOOD CELLS per minute!  ("Blood," by Douglas M. Surgenor, "Scientific American.").

            * The blood also contains "antibodies" against various infections, at least ten substances involved in clotting, twenty different enzymes, fat-containing proteins, carbohydrate-containing proteins, metal-containing proteins, hormones, albumins, and doubtless other still unidentified substances.  (See article on "BLOOD" by Douglas M. Surgenor, in "Scientific American"). 

            The average human body contains 5 litres of blood, which consist of 2.75 litres of plasma, 2.22 litres of red blood cells, .02 litre of platelets and .08 litre of white cells.       Blood has these functions in the body:

             (1)  It transports oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body.

            (2)  It carries food elements (glucose, amino acids, proteins, fats, etc.) from the alimentary canal to the cells.

            (3)  It assists in the elimination of waste products such as carbon dioxide, uric acid and creatinine.

            (4)  It carries hormones, the ductless gland secretions that regulate many important functions of the body.

            (5)  It maintains a more or less constant temperature in the body.

            (6)  It plays an important part in resistance to disease.

            (7)  The blood "maintains its own composition and integrity."

------------------- 

The Amazing Red Blood Cells 

            The red blood cell was once thought to be a "dead cell" because when it reaches the blood (it is made in the red marrow of bones) it at once loses its nucleus.  But actually, it stays ALIVE — WITHOUT A NUCLEUS!  That is a miracle of Divine design, for to rob a cell of its nucleus is almost like robbing a man of his heart.  The chief function of the red blood cell is to carry hemoglobin (which in turn carries oxygen to the cells); and since red blood cells can CARRY MUCH MORE WITHOUT A NUCLEUS TO TAKE UP SPACE, GOD MADE THEM INTO LIVING "GHOST CELLS." *   Moreover, this living "ghost cell" is specially "engineered" to carry a maximum load.

            *  Red blood cells, without their nucleus, are called "ghost cells." 

            "The red cells. . . .are a particularly excellent piece of biological engineering.  They are BICONCAVE in shape (like a donut, with a thin section in the middle instead of a hole), and this facilitates QUICK ENTRY of oxygen and other supplies to all parts of the cell.  If red blood cells were spherical instead of bioncave we would need about NINE TIMES AS MANY OF THEM to distribute oxygen in the body with the same speed."  (Eric Ponder, in "THE RED BLOOD CELL,"  Scientific American).

            Let every fair-minded person consider this double miracle and see that every red blood cell in man's body virtually says,     

            "The Supreme Architect designed me so I can stay alive without a nucleus, and He gave me such an efficient shape, that I can DO NINE TIMES AS MUCH WORK as if I were made like a conventional cell." 

            This, my friends, is THE FINGER OF GOD!  Evolution could work ten thousand million years and never "evolve" a cell without a nucleus that would stay alive. 

            There are many other phenomena, "mysterious (features), which testify to the complex structure and the vitality of the red cell.  One of the most striking appears when the cell is examined under a phase contrast microscope.  The surface of the cell seems to move, as if wind were blowing over a field of wheat.  This so-called 'scintillation' is believed to be connected with the cells metabolism." (Ibid). 

            The deeper we look into God's creation, the more marvelous it becomes.  One miracle is linked to another.  If the red blood cell is a miracle of construction, so is hemoglobin.  We have already called attention to the fact that hemoglobin is one of the most intricate protein molecules in nature. 

            "The manufacture of hemoglobin is a great chemical feat.  When a new red cell is made, its hemoglobin is made also.  This substance is one of THE MOST COMPLEX KNOWN TO CHEMISTRY. It is not only the most complex, it is one of the largest molecules that chemistry knows. . . The chemical skill of the red-bone marrow that makes the hemoglobin is transcendent!" (Ibid).  Who gave red-bone marrow such marvelous ability? 

            Hemoglobin (in the red blood cell) carries oxygen to each body cell and carbon dioxide from each body cell.  This involves another miracle and is accomplished by "methods of varying intricacy." 

            Oxygen is carried by the red cells; i.e., by the hemoglobin that the red cells carry.  The iron-containing protein combines readily with oxygen — and then releases it to the hungry cells.  "Whether the hemoglobin molecule will take up oxygen or release it, depends on the oxygen gas pressure in the place where it happens to be.  In a place of high oxygen concentration, as in the lungs, hemoglobin attaches oxygen to itself; but when this hemoglobin molecule reaches the hungry tissues, where oxygen concentration is low, it releases the oxygen! . . . In a similar manner, the hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide away from the tissues where it has delivered oxygen."  ("BLOOD," by Douglas M. Surgenor, Scientific American Magazine). 

            This is an astonishing performance that can be explained only by admitting that GOD MADE IT SO.

            Without exaggeration VOLUMES could be written on MIRACLES OF DESIGN AND FUNCTION in the blood. *

            * Volumes HAVE been written on WHITE BLOOD CELLS, ON BLOOD PLASMA, ON ANTIBODIES, ON THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, etc. 

Before we pass on to tell of some of the other miracles in the human body, let us consider two more miracles in the blood.

           (1)  The Marvel of the manufacture and presence in the blood of ANTIBODIES."

            Of extraordinary interest is the story of how the blood makes antibodies to fight disease.  Antibodies are "those substances in the blood which are protective agents formed to fight infection by an invading organism. . . .An antibody in the blood is a modified soluble protein with properties that make it stick to the type of molecule or microorganism against which it was developed.  After an attack of yellow fever, for example, antibodies against the yellow fever virus are formed.  These antibody molecules will immediately coat any new yellow fever viruses that happen to enter the body and WILL EFFECTIVELY PREVENT THEM from causing an attack of the disease."  ("HOW ANTIBODIES ARE MADE," by Sir Macfarlane Burnet, in the Scientific American Magazine).  Science and Medicine know these facts — but can not explain them. 

            (2)  How the Blood MAINTAINS ITS OWN COMPOSITION AND INTEGRITY. The blood works with the liver on this.

            "For this nature has developed most ingenious and elaborate mechanisms.  The blood halts its own escape from the body by a self starting series of reactions, still imperfectly understood, which involves calcium, the platelets and a number of plasma proteins, all in trace amounts.  The process leads to the formation of THROMBIN, which in turn converts the protein fibrinogen to the blood-clot material FIBRIN.  The internal composition and viscosity of the blood are controlled mainly by osmosis, which regulates water content.  This is no simple matter, for parts of the circulatory network, notably the capillaries, are permeable to water.  The control of the water balance between the blood and the tissues with which it is in contrast is exerted to a large extent by the concentrations of the large protein molecules on the two sides of the capillary wall."  ("BLOOD," by Douglas M. Surgenor, in The Scientific American Magazine). 

            And so, when the body is cut and its life-blood would ooze out or flow away, THE BLOOD ITSELF TAKES IMMEDIATE STEPS TO STOP THAT FLOW BY CLOTTING.  Truly the blood is a wonderful fluid — THE STREAM OF LIFE.  The Divine Designer made it as it is. 

THE HUMAN EYE:  "The Wonder of Wonders" 

            The phenomenon of vision was a great enigma to the ancients — and modern man is still wondering about the marvels of it. 

            Aristotle cried out in wonder:  "Who would believe that so small a space (as the eye) could contain the images of all the universe?  What skill can penetrate such a wonderful process?  This is it that leads human discourse to the consideration of divine things!"  (Quoted in the 1954 Smithsonian Report).

            Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, famous English physiologist, was one of the most highly honored scientists of our day.  (He died a few years ago, at the age of 95).  On writing a classic essay on THE EYE, he said, "Behind the intricate mechanism of the human eye lie breathtaking glimpses of a Master Plan."

            Of the eye we read"

            "No scientific instrument is as sensitive to light as your eye.  In the dark, its sensitivity increases 100,000 times, and you can detect a faint glow, less than a thousandth as bright as a candle's flame.  You can see in brilliant, blazing light, too' in light brighter than the radiance of a billion candles.  You can see light from the stars, and the nearest of all the stars is 24 trillion miles away.

            "The human eye responds to light waves, which are very short — 40,000 to 60,000 of them per inch.  (There are many kinds of energy waves: heat, light, radio, X rays).

            "The image focused by the lens of the eye falls on the 'screen' at the back of the eyeball, the retina.  The retina is a kind of carpet, made up of tiny light sensitive cells.  Each retina has about 130,000,000 cells.  There are two types of cells in the retina — 'rods' and 'cones' so-called because they look something like rods and cones under a microscope.  The 'rods' are used for general perception of light; the 'cones' are used to see color and fine detail."  (Our Amazing Eyes, by John Perry).

            It is unbelievable with what rapidity the eye works.  It has been estimated that from the vast panorama presented by your eyes, each eye can send a thousand million impulses per second to the brain — and then your mind chooses significant details.  You can stare at a sign without becoming aware of its message, while on the other hand a fragmentary glimpse of some familiar object attracts your immediate attention. (Your Remarkable Eyes," Science Digest). 

            To bring before us the fact that the human eye is indeed "THE WONDER OF WONDERS" we quote again from Sir Charles Scott Sherrington's classic essay on The Eye.

            How does a pinhead-sized ball of cells (the tiny human embryo) in the course of so many weeks become a child?  Consider the story of just one part: THE EYE.

            The many cells which make the human eye have first executed correctly a (process). . . engaging millions of performers in hundreds of sequences. . . . To picture the complexity and the precision of this performance beggars any imagery I have.  It suggests PURPOSIVE BEHAVIOR — not only by individual cells, but also by colonies of cells.

            The eyeball is a little camera.  Its smallness is part of its perfection.  But this is a SPHERIOD camera which focuses itself AUTOMATICALLY, according to the distance of the picture interesting it.  It turns itself in the direction of the view required.  Indeed our eyes are TWO CAMERAS finished to one standard so that the mind can read their two pictures as one.  And the eye is contrived as though WITH FORETHOUGHT OF SELF-PRESERVATION.  Should danger threaten it, in a trice its skin shutters close, protecting its transparent window.  Working only with albumin, salt and water, the starting embryo proceeds, though it is only a little pins-head bud of multiplying cells, NOT ONE-TEN-THOUSANDTH PART the size of the eyeball it makes.  The whole structure, with its prescience and all its efficiency, is produced by and out of specks of granular skin cells arranging themselves as of their own accord in sheets and layers, and acting seemingly on an agreed plan!  The magic juices that make the eye, go by the chemical names protein, sugar, fat, salts, water.  It all sounds like a tale that challenges belief; but so it is.  There is more yet.

            The biconvex lens is made from cells like those of the skin but modified to be glass-clear, and FREE FROM BLOOD VESSELS which would throw shadows within the eye.  It is delicately slung with accurate centering across the path of the light which will some months later enter the eye.  IT IS BEING PREPARED IN DARKNESS FOR USE IN LIGHT.  In front of it a circular screen controls, like the iris-stop of a camera, the width of the beam and is adjustable so that in poor light more is taken in for the image.  In a camera this adjustment is made by the observer; in the eye this adjustment is automatic, triggered by the image itself!

            Not only must the lens be glass-clear, but also its shape must be optically right.  Its two curved surfaces, back and front, MUST BE TRULY CENTERED ON ONE AXIS, AND EACH OF THE CURVATURES MUST BE CURVED TO THE RIGHT DEGREE, so that light is brought to a focus on the retina and gives there an accurately shaped image.  The optician skillfully grinds his glass curvatures in accordance with mathematical formulae.  In the formation of the lens of the eye a batch of granular skin cells are told to travel from the skin, to which they strictly belong, and to settle down in the mouth of the optic cup and arrange themselves in a compact and suitable ball.  NEXT THEY ARE TOLD TO TURN INTO TRANSPARENT FIBERS, and to make themselves into a subsphere — a lens of the RIGHT size, set at the RIGHT distance between the transparent window of the eye in front and the sensitive seeing screen of the retina behind.  In short, they behave as if fairly possessed!

            Furthermore, the lens of the eye, compassing what no glass lens can, CHANGES ITS CURVATURE to focus near objects as well as distant, when wanted; and not merely the lens, but the pupil — the camera stop — is self-adjusting.  ALL THIS HAPPENS WITHOUT OUR HAVING EVEN TO WISH IT, without our even knowing anything about it, beyond that we are seeing satisfactorily.

            The skin shutter outside, above and below this window, grows into moveable flaps, dry outside like ordinary skin, but MOIST INSIDE, which wipe the window clean every minute or so by painting fresh tear water over it.

            The eye's key structure is the light-sensitive screen at the back.  It receives, takes and records a CONTINUALLY CHANGING MOVING PICTURE, lifelong, without change of "plate," through every waking day.  And it signals its shifting exposures to the brain.  It (the retina) is a nine-fold layer of great complexity.  It is, strictly speaking, A PIECE OF THE BRAIN lying within the eyeball.

            The cells that are at the bottom of the cup become a photosensitive layer — the sensitive film of the camera.  The nerve lines connecting the photosensitive layer with the brain are not simple.  The human eye has about 137 million separate "seeing" elements spread out in the sheet of the retina.  The number of nerve lines leading from them to the brain gradually condenses down to little over a million.  They are in series of relays, each resembling a little brain, and each so shaped and connected as to transmit duly to the right points of the brain each light picture momentarily formed and "taken."  On the sense-cell layer the image has, picture-like, two dimensions, BUT THE STEP FROM THIS TO THE MENTAL EXPERIENCE IS A MYSTERY.  For it is the MIND which adds the third dimension when interpreting the two-dimensional picture.  AND IT IS THE MIND WHICH ADDS COLOR.

            The chief wonder of all we have not touched on yet.  The eye sends into the cell-and-fiber forest of the brain throughout the waking day continual rhythmic streams of tiny, individually evanescent electrical potentials.  This throbbing, streaming crowd of electrified shifting points in the spongework of the brain bears no obvious semblance in space pattern to the tiny two-dimensional upside down picture of the outside world which the eyeball paints on the beginnings of its nerve fibers to the brain.  BUT THAT LITTLE PICTURE SETS UP AN ELECTRICAL STORM.  And that electrical storm affects a whole population of brain cells.  Electrical charges have in themselves not THE FAINTEST ELEMENTS OF THE VISUAL — they have nothing of "distance," nor "vertical," nor "horizontal," nor "color," nor "brightness," nor "shadow," nor contour," nor "near," nor "far," nor visual anything — YET THEY CONJURE UP ALL THESE!  A shower of little electrical leaks conjures up for me, when I look, the landscape, the castle on the height or my friend's face, and how distant he is from me!

            How are we to explain the building and shaping of the eyeball, and the establishing of its nerve connections with the right points of the brain — and all starting from the tiny pinhead-sized embryo?  And how can one explain not only the eye but also the "seeing" by the brain behind the eye?  THIS IS THE WONDER OF WONDERS.  (Caps ours). 

            No evolutionist on earth can adequately explain such miracles by his theory.  The only possible explanation is, GOD MADE IT!

            Can anyone, who gives careful thought to the problem of HOW TO EXPLAIN THE HUMAN EYE, believe that it all started ages ago with a freckle or "pigment spot" that gradually developed through countless ages, by random mutations, into the marvelous human eye?  And by the way, if one eye should develop that way, why is it that there are two eyes, well spaced?  And why is it that a third eye did not develop on the side of the head — and a fourth in the back of the head?  In these days of auto-driving it would be so practical to have an eye in the back of your head!

            Many years ago, Dr. William Paley, in his book, Natural Theology, said, 

            "Were there no example in the world of contrivance except that of the eye, it would be alone sufficient to support the conclusion which we draw from it, as to the necessity of an intelligent Creator.' 

The Miracle ENZYMES 

TONSILS 

            Shall we take a look at our mysterious TONSILS, once considered by evolutionists to be "vestigial organs,"  having no practical value to the welfare of the body?  Learned doctors now assure us that tonsils are important — very important — to the welfare of the body, particularly in the first five years of life.

            Assuring us that "in the overwhelming majority of cases tonsil-ectomy is useless," Dr. Barry Bawkin, of the New York University and Bellvue Medical Center, says, "Tonsils act as a 'trap' to catch certain germs before they become widely spread through the bloodstream.  In addition, tonsils appear to play a vital role in the formation of antibodies against bacterial and virus diseases." 

TONGUE

            Or, shall we spend some time in a minute examination of the TONGUE, with its many muscles "twining and intertwining," bound together in marvelous complexity, in a most astonishing way, which arrangement makes possible the many and varied motions that the agile tongue is capable of?  Shall we look into the mysteries of its 3000 taste buds with their complicated structure — and each with a nerve connection to the brain?  Shall we wonder WHY we taste "bitter" at the back of the tongue, "sweet" at the tip, and "salt" and "sour" tastes at the sides of the tongue? 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 

            Someone will say, we must spend some time with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM, rightly called "one of the supreme wonders of the body."  ("Your Body's Wizardry with Food," by J. D. Ratcliff).  Quoting more from this article we learn, 

            "Your digestive system is rugged and durable, completely automatic, and so complex that its workings are still not fully understood. . . .

            "Digestion starts in the mouth, with the chemical action of one of the body's 20-odd ENZYMES — master chemists which promote reactions without themselves taking part in the reactions! . . . .

            The stomach is also a secretary organ, having the incredible total of 35 million glands!. . . .

            "The small intestine is one of the true wonders of the human body.  It is absolutely essential to life.  It performs the ultimate task of the digestive process.  It has an elaborate muscular system. . . .The inside of the intestines is rough, folded, and contains approximately five million 'villi,' minute, hairlike protuberances — necessary in the digestive process." (Condensed from the Readers Digest, 1953). 

TEETH 

            Another reader will say; "Don't forget the TEETH.  Wouldn't it be fascinating to trace the work of the tiny cellular 'teeth carpenters' who start before birth on their complex task?"

             These "teeth carpenters" must find their chemicals for their job in the blood stream, "so the root of the tooth has a hole bored into it to carry blood vessels which enter from the deeper parts of the mouth.  How do these expert "carpenters" KNOW HOW TO MAKE ENAMEL, DENTINE and CEMENT, laying the materials down bit by bit, shaping the teeth, placing the enamel over the chewing portion where it is needed, and performing all the intricate operations, right on time, EVEN HOLDING BACK THE TEETH UNTIL BABY HAS ALMOST FINISHED HIS NURSING?"  (Dr. A. L. Brown, in "GOD"S MASTERPIECE:  MAN'S BODY"). 

MUSCLE 

            Another will say, "You ought to discuss MAN'S MUSCLES — so complex in their action that "When you scratch your nose with your forefinger the muscular action involved dwarfs in complexity the workings of the hydrogen bomb.' " "THE MIRACLE OF MUSCLE," By J. D. Ratcliff). 

            More than half the human body is muscle — "the most remarkable stuff in nature's curiosity shop."  "We speak of 'muscles of iron,' yet the working or contractile element in muscle is soft as jelly.  HOW THIS JELLY CONTRACTS TO LIFT 1000 TIMES ITS OWN WEIGHT IS ONE OF THE SUPREME MIRACLES OF THE UNIVERSE.  An elaborate series of chemical and electrical events, which would require hours or days to duplicate in the laboratory, occurs almost instantaneously when a muscle contracts — the twitch of an eyelid for example." ("The Miracle of Muscle;" condensed from "Today's Health," Jan., 1956).

            Of course we should go on to write many pages more about these "Miracle Muscles" of ours — but space is limited. 

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

            A doctor among our readers says, "Do say something about Our NERVOUS SYSTEM:  Our incredibly efficient and complex communications service that dwarfs any made by man."

            "We are awed by the complicated tangle of wires in a large telephone cable:  wonder-struck by the efficiency of a communications system that completes a call halfway around the world in a few minutes.  But we are inclined to take for granted a communications system that is far more extensive, infinitely more complex — our own nervous system.  Day and night millions of messages pour through its billions of cells, telling the heart when to beat faster, limbs when to move, lungs when to suck air.  But for the links which it provides, our bodies would be mere masses of chaotic individual cells. . . .

            "The ears have 100,000 auditory cells.  Minute nerve ends in the inner ear pick up a particular sound frequency and start vibrating — waving like wheat in the wind.  A current is generated.  It may be so feeble that IT MUST BE AMPLIFIED THOUSANDS OF TIMES before it can be detected.  Fed into the brain, by the nervous system, it is identified as a musical note. . . .

            "Each eye has 139 million light receptors which send group impressions to the brain. . .

            "The skin contains a vast network of nerve receptors.  If a hot object is pressed against the skin, some of the 30,000 'heat spots' will warn of the danger.  It has 250,000 cold receptors and something like half a million tactile (touch) spots. . . .

            "When we reach a complete understanding of the nervous system, we shall be close to understanding A SUPREME RIDDLE OF THE UNIVERSE: how that mass of cells known as man manages to behave like a human being."  (Condensed from, "Hoe Your Nervous System Works," in the May, 1956, "Today's Health"). 

THE HEART

            Another eager inquirer then raises the question as to why the heart muscle beats a lifetime without tiring excessively.

            Bruno Kisch, research associate in cardiology at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital, believes he has the answer.

            "Heart muscle, like other striated muscle, is made of slender fibers.  These in turn are composed of tiny fibrils.  At regular intervals the fibrils are crossed by bands. . . .

            "Micrographs show that heart muscle differs from other muscle in two important respects.  The first is that the capillaries that carry blood to the heart muscle actually PENETRATE the muscle fibers; In other muscle the capillaries have only been observed on the surface of the fibers.  The second is that among the fibrils of heart muscle are an unusually large number of granules called SARCOSOMES, which in other cells are known to contain enzymes."

            Dr. Kisch believes that these sarcosomes give special feelings of rich enzymes to the heart muscle, and that, together with the deep-seated capillaries, is the SECRET of the untiring work of the heart!  (See, "HEART MUSCLE," Scientific American Magazine).

            The heart is the most efficient PUMP in all the world. 

HUMAN HAIR 

            To satisfy the curiosity of one questioner, we should take a peek at human hair — under the microscope. 

            "Hair surface consists of overlapping scales resembling shingles on a roof.  Underneath the scale is the cortex — overlapping spindle shaped cells that contain pigment.  In or near the center of every hair is usually a medulla made up of cube-like cells which may contain pigment cells and air spaces."  In each individual in the world his HAIR FOLLOWS A DISTINCTIVE PATTERN, set by the scales, the cortex and the medulla!  One's hair is as distinctive as one's fingerprints!  (See, "Detective by a Hair," telling of the work of Dr. Milton W. Eddy, who has perfected a system of identification by one's hair). 

THE "DUCTLESS" GLANDS 

            Each of us has in his body two kinds of GLANDS: Duct glands, such as the liver, that pour out their secretions through a duct to a designated place.  We also have in our bodies pieces of highly specialized tissue that secrete chemicals that are poured DIRECTLY INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.  They are called the Endocrine or ductless, glands.  The most important ones are the Pituitary, the Thyroid, the Parathyroids, the Islet cells of the Pancreas, the Adrenals and the Gonads.  These endocrine glands, which together weigh only about two ounces, pour out some of the most powerful drugs known!           

The Pituitary Gland 

            The PITUITARY is "the most remarkable gland in the human body." 

            "Because of its influence on other glands, it has been compared to the conductor of a great symphony.  About the size of a large pea, it resides in a bony cavern on the underside of the brain, approximately in the center of the head.  Something like 50,000 never fibers enter this fragment of tissue.  Some of its hormones act as stimulants on specific targets.  Thus one jolts the thyroid into activity, while other activate the adrenals, pancreas and sex glands.  One helps to govern salt balance in the body.  Another acts as a brake on the kidneys.  One of the most fascinating of pituitary chemicals is the growth hormone:  the circus midget has too little, the giant too much. Etc. etc.."  (See, "Your Amazing Glands," in Your Family Doctor, 11-58').

             Can anyone believe that this astonishing gland, no larger than  a pea, "just happened" or was formed by "chance mutations?" 

            "The thyroid gland in your neck produces no more than a teaspoonful of hormone in a year.  But if the teaspoon is only partially filled, a newborn baby can develop into a cretin — a malformed idiot.   "The adrenal glands produce only a teaspoonful of hormone in a lifetime.  But let the hairline balance be upset and we are prey to a host of crippling and disabling diseases."  (Ibid). 

THE HUMAN HAND 

            Some artist or musician raises the question, "How about discussing the HAND?"  Gladly, dear friend, for the hand is one of the most marvelous of God's gifts to man.  The hand is unique with man.

             "Nowhere in the animal kingdom is there anything comparable with the human hand. . . .the organ that has specialized in remaining specialized.  It is an almost perfect tool-holder."  "The HAND, the BRAIN, and human SPEECH are the three features that distinguish man from the animals."

            "The wrist has 8 pieces of bone, all wonderfully jointed.  Our fingers have 19 bones, and are webbed part way up on the palm side, making a big hand that prevents things slipping through the fingers. . . . The human hand is a very wonderful thing and one of the greatest of all its wonders is that the thumb is 'opposable' and CAN TOUCH ALL THE FINGERS — and so the hand can grasp tools, a pen, etc." 

            The hand has strength, lightness and dexterity.  With the hands one can play the piano, write, paint and perform a thousand and one other actions.

            W. BELL DAWSON, M. A., F. R. S. C., Canadian scientist, wrote this instructive statement about the hand: 

            "The design of the hand is remarkable; for the large and strong muscles which bend the fingers are NOT IN THE FINGERS THEMSELVES, but in the forearm near the elbow; and the fingers are bent by tendons or cords attached to these muscles, which pass through the wrist and across the palm of the hand to the fingers.  What a remarkable plan it is on which our hands are constructed.  How dreadful it would be if our fingers were like thick sausages, as they would be IF their powerful bending muscles had been placed in the fingers themselves!  As it is, the hand, though so wonderfully strong, is able to do the most delicate work.

            "Those who wish us to believe that man has descended from some animal, are MORE PUZZLED ABOUT THE HAND than almost anything else in the human body.  For the evolutionist, who tries to prove his theory, cannot imagine, nor explain, HOW THE HAND WITH ALL ITS SKILL, could have developed from the PAW OF A BEAST.  For it is only a highly intelligent being that can make use of an appliance which is so remarkably made as the hand.  How then did its skill begin?  the animals had no need of it whatever because their paws were already thoroughly fitted for every purpose in their animal life." 

MAN'S INCREDIBLE LIVER 

            Consider a few facts about "Man's Incredible Liver."  Take a look at a shapeless glob of liver in a butcher shop; transfer your thoughts to your own liver, the largest internal organ in your body.  It may weigh almost four pounds. 

            "The liver is becoming recognized as one of the greatest mysteries of the scientific world.  It does 19 different jobs!" *

            * This was written in 1958.  Today, "more than 500 liver functions have been catalogued and new ones are constantly being discovered.  This is chemical magic almost beyond imagination."

More about "Man's Incredible Liver" in the ADDENDUM.

            "Your liver," says Herbert D. Benjamin, M. D., is probably the most efficient and complicated device on the face of the earth."

            "This mysterious gland is the master laboratory of the body. . . .The liver's cells brew a vast and varied chemistry essential to the smooth functioning of all our organs.  Some examples:  our kidneys couldn't dispose of waste nitrogen if the liver didn't turn it into urea for excretion.  The liver stores vitamins necessary to the birth of blood in the marrow of our bones.  The liver builds amino acids into the albumin that regulates the balance of salt and water without which we could not live.  And the liver manufactures bile which influences intestinal activity, so we're not poisoned by products of our own digestion."  ("Your Liver is Your Life," by Paul deKruif, in Reader's digest).

            "the liver is the most fantastically complex and efficient organ in the human body.  Among other things, the liver regulates the exact consistency of the bloodstream.  It does this by producing three different substances and delivering them to the blood in just the right proportions needed.  HOW it does this nobody can even begin to guess. . . .One of these substances is FIBRINOGEN, which causes clotting when the blood is exposed to the air.  This substance is so complicated that scientists have been unable to duplicate it in the laboratory.

            "the second is PROTHROMBIN; it keeps the bloodstream thick enough so that internal hemorrhages through the walls of the blood vessels and organs cannot develop.

            "And the third is HEPARIN that counteracts any tendency of the other two to thicken the blood too much."

            Yes, "the liver is a combination factory, laboratory and refinery that forms dozens of fantastically complicated chemical operations that no man-made factory in the world can duplicate."  (Dr. Glen R. Shepherd).

            The liver does all of these amazing feats through two types of cells.  "Reddish-brown in color, the liver contains millions of minute cells arranged into working units known as LOBULES.  Each lobule is a chemical factory or storehouse."  (See "Man's Incredible Liver," by Leroy Thorpe). 

            Think a moment:  Could this reddish-brown, shapeless mass of cells do all these miracles, without being activated and made to perform so by the Supreme Intelligence? That the human liver could evolve through random mutations is as farfetched as to believe that a modern jet plane could make itself.

THE EAR 

            The specialist suggests that we consider the EAR:  AUDITORY MARVEL. 

            "Even in our era of technological wonders, the performances of our most amazing machines are still put in the shade by the sense organs of the human body.  Consider the accomplishments of the ear. It is so sensitive that it can almost hear the random rain of air molecules bouncing against the eardrum; yet in spite of its extraordinary sensitivity the ear can withstand the pounding of sound waves strong enough to set the body vibrating.  The ear is equipped, moreover, with a truly impressive SELECTIVITY.  In a room crowded with people talking, it can suppress most of the noise and concentrate on one speaker. . . .At some sound frequencies the vibrations of the eardrum are as small as one billionth of a centimeter — about one-tenth the diameter of the hydrogen atom!  AND THE VIBRATIONS OF THE VERY FINE MEMBRANE IN THE INNER EAR WHICH TRANSMITS THIS STIMULATION TO THE AUDITORY NERVE ARE NEARLY 100 TIMES SMALLER IN AMPLITUDE. This fact alone is enough to explain why hearing has so long been one of the MYSTERIES OF PHYSIOLOGY.  Even today WE DO NOT KNOW HOW THESE MINUTE VIBRATIONS STIMULATE THE NERVE ENDINGS."  (See article on "THE EAR," By Georg von Bekesy, in the Scientific American).

            Let us consider briefly part of the marvelous structure of the ear.  "To understand how the ear achieves its sensitivity, we must take a look at the anatomy of the middle and the inner ear.  When sound waves start the ear drum (tympanic membrane) vibrating, the vibrations are transmitted via certain small bones (ossicles) to the fluid of the inner ear.  One of the ossicles, the tiny stirrup (weighing only about 1.2 milligrams), acts on the fluid like a piston, driving it back and forth in the rhythm of the sound pressure.  These movements of the fluid force into vibration a thin membrane called the basilar membrane.  The latter in turn finally transmits the stimulus to the organ if Corti, a complex structure * which contains the endings of the auditory nerves. 

            * The organ of Corti is so complex, its workings are almost beyond human comprehension.  "The cochlea has developed within itself the extraordinary structure known as the ORGAN OF CORTI.  The cochlea consists of two and a half spiral turns around a central supporting pillar.  But this spiral canal is subdivided by plates of bone and membrane into three staircases.  Upon this membranous partition is the special structure called the organ of Corti.  THIS IS A VERY COMPLICATED ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS, placed upon a vast number of parallel fibers rather like piano wires; . . . .

It has been supposed that these fibers act like the wires of a piano, responding to various vibrations that reach them. . . .In this organ itself the essential elements are the hair-cells of Corti, many thousands in number, having fibers of the auditory nerve encircling their bases, while the upper ends are provided with several short stiff hairs, bathed in the fluid that fills the cochlea.  These are undoubtedly the all-important cells of the inner ear." (Book of Popular Science).  The workings of the INNER EAR are so complicated no one fully understands them.

The question immediately comes up: WHY IS THE LONG AND COMPLICATED CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION NECESSARY?

            "The reason is that we have a formidable mechanical problem if we are to extract the utmost energy from the sound waves striking the ear drum.  Usually when a sound hits a solid surface, most of its energy is reflected away.  THE PROBLEM THE EAR HAS TO SOLVE is to absorb this energy.  To do so, it has to act as a kind of mechanical transformer, converting the large amplitude of the sound pressure waves in the air into more forceful vibrations of smaller amplitude." (Ibid). (Caps ours). 

            You may have to read the above paragraphs at least THREE TIMES to follow the description; but note well what we capitalized:  "WHY IS THIS LONG AND COMPLICATED  CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION NECESSARY?"  And the author tells us why — "to extract the utmost efficiency from the sound waves."  Note that the author suggests that the EAR had a problem to solve.  Now the EAR is utterly unable to solve ANY problem.  To suggest that the "ear" had a problem to solve is like suggesting that the propeller of an airplane, not yet properly designed, had a problem to solve.  It is not the MECHANISM that solves the problems, but the MECHANIC.  GOD, the Creator, had a problem to solve, when He constructed the ear — and He did a magnificent job of it!  Why not give HIM the credit for what He did?

            The author of the article in "THE BOOK OF POPULAR SCIENCE" who wrote on THE EAR, had this significant thing to sat (P. 2762): 

            "From the external ear a canal leads inwards until it is closed by a definite and unmistakable drum-head.  The drum of the ear, or tympan, is no more figuratively so named than the lens of the eye.  It is what it is named, AND THOSE WHO CAN CREDIT ITS ORIGIN BY THE NATURAL SELECTION OF CHANCE VARIATIONS CAN CREDIT ANYTHING." (Caps ours).  This author, whoever he is, is saying exactly what we say:  It is IMPOSSIBLE to believe that such an intricate and involved mechanism as the ear came into being by "chance variations" in the theoretical workings of "evolution."  Since the "chance variations" of evolution are ruled out by all reason and logic, we MUST account for such miracles of construction by acknowledging that GOD MADE THEM. 

"OUR LIVING BONES" 

            We would like to enlarge on the structure and workings of the KIDNEYS that "are among the most miraculous organs in the body." * but we are forced to stop, by reason of limitations of space.  * (The kidneys contain a total of approximately 280 MILES of tiny tubules whose function is to filter impurities from the blood.  In the course of a day they filter something like 185 quarts of water from the blood, purify it, and return it to circulation:  THE MOST AMAZING PURIFYING SYSTEM IN THE WORLD.  Who designed this system?)  But we do want to speak of yet one more marvel of the body: "OUR LIVING BONES." 

            "Actually, our bones are not 'dead' but they contain thousands of small blood vessels and are quite as much ALIVE as one's stomach.  Active little cells called osteoblasts work night and day creating new bone, while house-wrecking cells known as osteoclasts labor just as hard tearing down material tagged for the scrap heap.  In addition, the red marrow acts as a blood-cell factory, and the bones themselves as calcium storage vaults." (See "Our Living Bones," in the May, '48 "Hygeia"). 

            Every bone in the body and every combination of bones was especially DESIGNED to serve a certain purpose.  The skull was designed to house and protect the brain.  The spinal column was especially designed with three curves in it, instead of being straight. 

            "The curves protect the spine against fracture.  The presence of the three curves divides the weight of the three masses of organs in the body.  The upper sector carries the head, the middle one, the thoracic viscera, and the lower one the abdominal organs.  In a straight backbone there would be entirely too much weight concentrated at the bottom.  Remember also these other features about the spine: (1)  The astonishing articulations by which the several bones of the spine touch one another in many places, but invariably FIT absolutely accurately; (2)  the amazing system of LIGAMENTS which bind each pair of bones together; and (3) the wholly wonderful perforation of the individual bones, making a neatly fitting conduit to carry the spinal cord without injury of the slightest degree, although it (the spinal cord) is one of the most delicate structures of the body; (4) the strange curvature, perfectly engineered; and (5) the large number of bones and joints, giving FLEXIBILITY — all these reveal to us the wisdom of the Creator.  (Adapted from Dr. Brown's treatise on "GOD'S MASTERPIECE: MAN'S BODY").

            Merged into the skull is the facial portion of the head, with its 14 bones, so as to make the well-known contour for jaws, cheeks, eye-sockets and nostrils. 

            "The leg bones are hollow, in keeping with the engineering principle that a hollow column is stronger than an solid one of equal weight.  On a weight-for-weight basis BONES ARE STRONGER THAN STEEL.  Bone construction is comparable to reinforced concrete."  (See "Our Busy Bones." Today's Health, Nov.,  '55).

            But the hollow space within the bones is NOT WASTED.  In some bones it is filled with the blood-forming bone marrow.  God is an Expert at conservation and efficiency.

            "The human skeleton represents a MASTERPIECE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN, with each component part tailored to a specific job." (Ibid). 

            All authorities on bones emphasize the fact that they are DESIGNED for a specific job — but few of them call attention to WHO DESIGNED THEM.  Surely, the bones themselves could not do that; it is impossible for reasoning people to believe that such "marvels of engineering," such obvious DESIGN for a desired end, just "happened" through the processes of "natural selection" and "chance variations."  Who or what then DESIGNED our living bones?  The only possible answer is: GOD, THE CREATOR, DESIGNED THEM.

            We ask further — Who DESIGNED the marvelous hinge joint in the knee?  Who DESIGNED the amazingly efficient ball-and-socket joints at shoulders and hips, making movements of arms and legs possible in almost every direction!  ALL joints in the body are "true wonders of mechanical art." (Dr, Brown). 

            "BONE is a busy and in many ways quite amazing tissue.  It houses the factory (the bone marrow) that produces most of the cells in the blood; it stores minerals and doles them out as needed to other parts of the body; it repairs itself after an injury; it grows, like any other living tissue, until the body reaches adulthood.  Not the least of its wonderful properties is the fact that while it is growing and constantly building itself, it also serves as the rigid structural support for the body, like the steel framework of a building." ("BONE," By Franklin C. McLean, in Scientific American). 

            Consider now this fact: the world is astonished at the wonders of the human body — but they fail to give the Creator the credit due HIM.  We list some of the titles of the articles in secular and scientific journals from which we have quoted.  Note how all of them speak with amazement about the human body. 

"Wonders of Conception"                             "Your Body's Wizardry with Food"

"Secrets of the Human Cell"                             "Powerful Pinheads"

"The Miracle of Birth"                                        "Your Amazing Glands"

"The Miracle of Growth"                                      "Your Liver is Your Life"

"Your Remarkable Eyes"                                        "Man's Incredible Liver"

"BLOOD: The Stream of Life"                         "Our Living Bones" 

            To sum up: the human body is a MIRACLE in construction and function.  We have not listed one-thousandth part of its wonders.  It would take a million words — and then the subject would not be fully covered.  From head to toes, from skin to bone marrow, ALL parts of the body give evidence of careful DESIGN — engineering perfection.  Only God the Creator could achieve such a masterpiece of construction! 

Part II — THE MIND OF MAN 

            We must distinguish between the "mind" — man's mental ability — and the "brain" — the physical organ that is the seat of the mind.  As Norman L. Munn says, 

            "No one has ever seen a mind.  A surgeon cutting in the brain sees only nerves and blood vessels; to know what is going on in the brain he must ask the patient. . . .Only through language can we get any sort of direct picture of the working of the mind." (The Evolution of Mind; June, '57, "Scientific American').

            Men in all ages have marvelled at the miracles of man's mind. 

            "Of all wonders," wrote Sophocles "none is more wonderful than man who has learned the arts of thought and speech."

            Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn, noted modern anthropologist, wrote, "To my mind, the human brain is the most marvelous and mysterious object in the whole universe."

            "The brain is a mystery," said Sir Charles Sherrington, of London; "it has been and still will be.  HOW DOES THE BRAIN PRODUCE THOUGHTS?  That is the central question and we have still no answer to it. . . .Despite significant advances, we have not yet accumulated more than fragmentary insight into what goes on in the brain. . . .which is of HARDLY IMAGINABLE COMPLEXITY."

            Another scientist bears witness to the same fact.  "Today, even though we are awed and even frightened by the intellectual achievements of man's mind, the mechanisms that make it possible are still unknown.  Knowledge of the outward form of the brain is well advanced.  But what of the neuron mechanisms involved in CONSCIOUSNESS, THOUGHT, PERCEPTION, BEHAVIOUR, MEMORY?. . . .They are unknown."  (Wilder Penfield. Prof. of Neurology, McGill University, in an article in the 1955 Smithsonian Institute Annual Report). 

The Physical Nature of the Brain 

            The brain, spinal cord and associated nerves comprise the "Central Nervous System."  The brain of the average man weighs about 3.3 pounds — 1500 grams — "a mass of pink-gray jelly-like substance composed of some ten to fifteen billion nerve cells."  There are three important parts to the brain:

              (1)  The Cerebrum.  It is the main part of the brain.  It is in two halves; each is heavily convoluted.  About 65% of the surface area of the cerebrum is buried in the folds of the fissures that form the convolutions; so, by using massive convolutions, the Creator increased the efficiency of the brain threefold.  The cerebrum, with its covering of "gray matter" (the cerebral cortex), which is only 1 inch thick and 400 square inches in area, is the seat "of consciousness, memory, imagination and reason."

            "The ten to fifteen billion nerve cells in this cerebral cortex are the center of operations.  Each of the sense organs reports on its own lines to specific, well defined regions of operations.  Those for the eyes are at the back of the brain, those for the ears are well down on each side, etc.

            "All messages to the brain are sifted and decoded, decisions are made and orders relayed to appropriate stations of the body.  It STAGGERS THE IMAGINATION HOW EFFICIENTLY IT DOES THE JOB.  With five or six times as many workers (the microscopic brain cells) as there are people in the entire world, and WITHOUT SUPERVISORS. . . .it can handle equally well the information conveyed by the cells' call 'soups on!'  or 'fire!' or 'play ball!', by the sight of an object in a store window, a page of differential equations, a beautiful woman, the tiny spot of light from a distant star, or the blinking of a traffic signal." (The Physiology of Imagination).

            "It is a far reaction," Sir Charles Sherrington, noted Oxford Scientist, reminds us, "from an electrical reaction in the brain to suddenly seeing the world around one, with all its distances, its color and its variations of light and shade." (The "electrical reaction" he refers to is real, but unbelievably minute.  And the neurons — brain cells in the cortex — are inconceivably complex in their composition and action).

            "The study of the densely packed fine structure of the cortex has generated an immense literature on the various neuron types and their arrangement and interconnection in the half-dozen layers in which the cortex is divided.  WE DO NOT EVEN BEGIN TO COMPREHEND the functional significance of this richly complex design. . . .Each of the ten billion neurons receives connections from perhaps 100 other neurons and these connect to still 100 more!  THE PROFUSION OF INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG THE CELLS OF THE GREY MATTER IS BEYOND ALL IMAGINATION.  It is ultimately so comprehensive that the whole cortex can be thought of as one great unit of integrated activity.  If we now persist in regarding the brain as a machine, then we must say that IT IS BY FAR THE MOST COMPLICATED MACHINE IN EXISTENCE. . . .It is infinitely more complicated than the most complicated man-made machines — the electric computers.

            "Each of the 10 billion neurons is an independent, living unit.  It receives impulses from other cells through intricately branching dendrite fibers which sprout from its central body; it discharges impulses to other cells via a single slender fiber, the AXON, which branches profusely to make contact with numerous receiving cells via their DENTRITES. . . . Connections between cells are established by the SYNAPSES — specialized junctions. . . .At these synapses the transmitting cell secretes highly specific chemical substances, whose high-speed reaction carries the signal from one cell to the next.  THE WHOLE OF THIS ALL IMPORTANT PROCESS OCCURS ON AN EXQUISITELY SMALL SCALE.  A neuron operates on a power of about a thousand-millionth of a watt!"  (Condensed from "THE PHYSIOLOGY OF IMAGINATION." by John C. Eccles, President, Australian Academy of Sciences, "The Scientific American," Sept., '58).

             The above is a highly technical discussion of the working of the cerebral cortex, but we include it to alert the reader to some appreciation of how inconceivably complex are the workings of the brain.  To help us better understand how truly remarkable the human brain is, we offer this contrast: 

            "It takes 500 TONS of equipment for just ONE telephone exchange.  Sixty-two thousand man hours of work are needed to install this one 10,000 line dial Exchange.  Eighty miles of cables and 2,600,000 soldered connections are needed for this apparatus."  The human brain, of course, does INFINITELY more than a 500-ton mass of telephone equipment which merely carries messages, but gives no commands, can not remember, reason, speak or imagine. 

            (2)  The Cerebellum.  It is beneath the back part of the Cerebrum — and much smaller.  The cerebellum controls the voluntary actions of our muscles, partly on orders from the cerebrum.  It is that part of the brain concerned with our control of the body, as "balance, the body's movements, and its muscular habits and aptitudes."  With his "incomparable cerebrum," and his likewise "incomparable cerebellum," man can attain special techniques like those of the pianist, surgeon or artist.

            The ability to preserve our balance "is an enormously involved process;" so much so that "probably 1,000,000,000 nerve cells take part in every move we make to keep our bodies straight." 

            (3)  The Medulla Oblongata.  It is the enlarged bulb at the top of the spinal column.  It is a center to control the automatic functions of the body, as breathing, and the pumping of the heart.

            Volumes by the score have been written on both the Cerebellum and the Medulla Oblongata, and an incredible mass of wonders and miracles have been discovered about these portions of the brain — pertaining to both their composition and functions.  We must leave to others the privilege of enumerating them, for the wonder of reverent minds.

            Having said little about the marvels of the cerebrum — the main portion of the brain — and its incomparable cortex, we now want to point out the great GULF that exists

Between the Brain of an Ape and the Brain of Man.

            There is a vast gulf when SIZE  is considered. 

            Prof. C. Judson Herrick, distinguished Chicago neurologist, says, "The brain of the most incompetent normal man is TWICE as big as the most accomplished ape."  And the average size brain of man is "THREE times as large as the average size brain of an ape," relative to body sizes. 

            Not only is man's brain much larger, but it also has certain areas and lobes that the brain of an ape DOES NOT HAVE. 

            The portions of the brain of an ape that receive sense impressions and bring about muscular movements are about as large, relatively speaking, as those of a man.  But in man there is a tremendous development in the "association areas" where the process of reasoning, and other higher functions of the mind, go on.  "The "association areas" also enable man to read, speak, understand a language, and learn by experience.

            Another authority says,  "A certain small area of the cortex, in the frontal lobe, called 'Broca's convolution,' is man's SPEECH center; monkeys and apes DO NOT HAVE THIS AREA AT ALL."

            And here is an additional weighty testimony:  "The most remarkable change in brain form, passing up the scale from monkey to man, is the comparative ENLARGEMENT of the frontal and anterior lobes, and there can be little doubt that this (enlargement) is associated with man's supremacy in the intellectual sphere." (p.436, Annual Report for 1955, Smithsonian Institute). 

            HOW DID MAN GET THIS ENLARGED BRAIN?  And how are we to account for the fact that only man has the brain areas that give the powers of speech (using organized language), reasoning, the ability to learn from experience, and the miracle of a creative imagination?  One can easily see that "between the brain of the higher apes and man is a VAST GULF" for which evolution has no satisfactory explanation. 

WHAT THE MIND OF MAN DOES 

            The mind of man has capabilities that set it apart as God's Masterpiece of creation.  Not only does the mind of man control and direct the muscular activity of his body (both voluntary and automatic), but also it has the power to remember the past, plan for the future, make decisions and carry them out; it can reason, imagine and dream; it makes man self-conscious and world-conscious.  There are many more activities of the mind. *

            * J. P. Guilford (University of Southern Calif.) says, "about 40 mental dimensions or factors of the mind have so far been mapped out — with others yet to be identified."  Among them he lists "originality, judgment, foresight, ability to visualize and to express ideas verbally, and to comprehend what others say."  (Popular Medicine).  The mind also is equipped with "self-restoring powers" after a period of depression or a nervous breakdown, given sufficient time.  (Morton M. Hunt, 'Family Weekly," 1-12-'64.

Here are some of the more wonderful of the capabilities of the mind: 

            (1)  It is the Mind that makes our sense organs work.

            "We know something about how the sense organs in the eye, the ear, the nose and the skin transmit stimuli of light, sound, floating particles and touch into afferent streams of nerve impulses, but without the subtle powers of MIND, working in and through the brain, all these sense perceptions would be lost.  Neither the highly complex ear nor eye would work at all WITHOUT THE MIND BEHIND THEM."

            (2)  It is the Mind of Man that makes real to him the Outside World.  Sir Charles Sherrington impresses on us this miracle.

            "I am seated in my room and turn to look through the window.  I perceive sun and sky, field and road, the approaching friend.  There is 'near' and 'far' in the scene; there is color; some objects move — others do not.  WHERE IS THIS SCENE?  Out beyond the window?  Yes; but also, IT IS IN MY BRAIN.  It is a transmutation, a wonderful transition, as inexplicable as fairy magic. . . .It is the work of the brain! . . .

            "To glimpse the marvel of this, we must strip from our minds the habituation of lifelong routine.  Then only can it appear to us in its NAKED WONDER — the more intriguing, because still inexplicable . . . And there is another strange thing about it, namely, that this unexplained phenomenon DOES NOT EXCITE ANY WONDER IN US.  WHY?"

            (3)  The Mind of Man makes Man CONSCIOUS of himself.

This has been called "the most celebrated achievement of the human mind." (Fred Kohler).

            Fred Kohler, ardent evolutionist, in his book "Evolution and Human Destiny" says, "One of the most remarkable achievements of the human mind IS ITS ABILITY TO BE CONSCIOUS OF ITSELF AND ITS FUNCTIONING.  'Consciousness' represents actually a situation in which matter has become aware of its own existence.  This is indeed such a remarkable circumstance that it has been considered to be beyond the possibility of any scientific understanding. . . .and has led to the belief that MAN IS IN SOME FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS DIFFERENT FROM ALL OTHER CREATURES, and that his mind must contain some principle not explicable in terms of it being an extremely complex aggregate of matter."  (pages 95, 96, 97; Caps ours).

            In his book, "The Nature of the Universe," Fred Hoyle noted astronomer and evolutionist, comments on the miracle and mystery of CONSCIOUSNESS.  "How," he asks, "is a machine produced that can THINK ABOUT ITSELF AND THE UNIVERSE AS A WHOLE?  At just what stage in the evolution of living creatures did INDIVIDUAL CONSCIOUSNESS ARISE?  I do not say that questions such as these are unanswerable, but I do say that it will not be simple to answer them," (p. 123). 

            This astounding miracle of the mind of man that makes man SELF-CONSCIOUS and WORLD-CONSCIOUS, though it is such an inexplicable mystery to this scientist, is readily understood by the person who believes in special Creation.  It is explained by the fact that when God created man, He not only made his body, but also He made him a living soul (see Genesis 2:7), self-conscious, world-conscious, universe-conscious — and conscious of his fellow-men.  The Bible speaks of this miracle in 1 Corinthians 2:11. 

            "For what man knoweth the things of man, save the spirit of man which is in him?" 

            (4)  The mind of Man can Learn to do most anything: It can create Machines.  In its inventive or creative ability the mind of man is so far ahead of the animal creation that one can not speak accurately of a "missing link" — one must say "a missing CHAIN."           

            "In this respect the mind of man OVERWHELMINGLY TRANSCENDS its predecessors.  Though the ape can learn, its powers of learning are strictly limited.  But the evident fact of man is, HE CAN LEARN TO DO ANYTHING.  He can make any kind of object, any kind of a machine, or a book.  Only man's brain can create machines outside his body.  The difference then between man's mind and that of his nearest rivals is the difference between the unlimited and the limited. . . The brain of man is the supreme organ of life."  ( P. 1969, Book of Popular Science). 

            (5)  The Mind of Man has the Power to REMEMBER, and to learn from past Experiences.  What is this strange power of mind that enables the brain to store away in its secret repositories beyond the immediate sphere of consciousness MILLIONS OF FACTS AND OBSERVATIONS that can be brought forth to active recollection on demand or when needed?  This is a miracle so stupendous as to be totally incredible did we not all know it to be true! How can a man conjure at will the image of his long-dead grandmother?  or the old homestead where he spent his childhood, and the thousands of precious memories associated with it? 

            In some persons memory is truly phenomenal.  The late Charles Evan Hughes could write a thirty-minute speech, and then deliver it from memory — word-for-word — the same day.

            John von Neuman, reputed to be "one of the world's greatest scientists," had "mastered college calculus by the age of eight and could memorize on sight a column in a telephone book and repeat back the names, addresses and numbers without error." (See Life Magazine, issue of Feb., 25, '57). 

            So prodigious is man's ability to memorize and remember that we are told "the brain's ten billion cells can hold, potentially, more information than is contained in the nine million volumes in the Library of Congress."  Another authority says, "in the 70 years of his life a person can receive into his mind 15 TRILLION SEPARATE BITS OF INFORMATION." 

            And think of this miracle;  Recent research has "located the recording mechanism for remembered experiences" in an area of the brain having a "total surface of about 25 square inches — and only a tenth of an inch thick — in the cerebral cortex."  (See "The Tape Recorder in Your Brain," 9-'58 Coronet, page 57).

            "The brain's tissue (the seat of the memory) include some thousand billion billion protein molecules.  THAT number is believed ample for the purposes of human memory." (Ibid). 

            (6)  The Mind of Man has the Power to FORGET some things. 

            We do not actually recall physical pain. 

            "Unconsciously certain self-protective devices in the mind erase from memory some painful memories, unpleasant appointments and embarrassing situations" — though not entirely — as though to save us from an overload of painful memories.  The keen edge of grief and loss soon wear off.  Many frightening dreams are forgotten before even the sleeper awakes — "hidden from view by the self-protective unconscious mind that is always on guard." (Popular Medicine). 

            (7)  The Miracle of the Unconscious or Subconscious Mind.  Much of the prodigious amount of information stored in the mind is in the storehouse of the unconscious mind.  The subconscious mind seems to retain EVERYTHING it has ever received!  And though it is difficult, seemingly impossible, to bring much of it up to the surface, modern psychologists are discovering new ways to induce the subconscious mind to dislodge its long hidden secrets. 

            "The most wonderful part of your mind is undoubtedly the unconscious, which lies below the immediately recoverable memory and is thousands of times larger.  We do not yet know much about the unconscious mind, but we are learning. . . . By means of several devices we now know how to bring back lost memories."  ("Your Brain's Unrealized Powers,"  Reader's Digest). 

            (8)  Man's Mind is "Educable" — it has the power to Learn from Experience, History and Teachers.

            Unlike the beasts, who never advance, from generation to generation, man learns from history, from his own experience and the experience of others.  He builds on the inherited knowledge of the past.  The accumulated knowledge has rapidly increased, especially since the invention of printing.  In recent years accumulated knowledge has snowballed, so that in our times man has accomplished truly amazing things!

            Mankind has developed such marvels as highspeed photography, airplanes that ravel faster than sound, television, radio, the X-ray, nuclear fission, and a thousand and one other miracles that previous generations could never have realized for the simple reason that ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE had not yet advanced to the point that permitted the intricate inventions of our modern age. 

            (9)  Man's Mind alone is created with the ability to learn and use LANGUAGE.  Beyond all question, this is one of the greatest gifts God gave to man.  The ability to learn a language and use it distinguishes him from all lower animals, and enables him to communicate knowledge to others and to learn from others. 

            "A child learns the use of words not merely as mechanical signs and signals (as an animal does) but as AN INSTRUMENT OF THOUGHT.  This insight is beyond the reach of any animal.  Even the most intelligent sub-human reacts only to SOUNDS and not to the meaning of words.  The late Edward Lee Thorndike demonstrated this with an experiment on his cats.  He trained them to dash to the food box when he said, 'I must feed those cats;' but then when he later exclaimed at the cats' meal time, 'Today is Tuesday' (using the same intonations as they were accustomed to) the cats speed to the box.  And the words 'My name is Thorndike' evoked the same response. . . . A chimpanzee, intelligent as it is, SIMPLY CANNOT MASTER LANGUAGE.  It can be taught to speak a few words, but each word takes months and eight words seem to be about its limit. . . .With a body as large and complex as ours, the chimpanzee has only ONE-THIRD as much brain to manage it.  Furthermore, in the ape's brain the frontal area, which is concerned with associations and symbolic functions, IS MUCH SMALLER IN RELATION TO THE REST OF THE BRAIN than ours.  It seems to lack entirely the section in the left frontal lobe known as 'Broca's area,' a part of the human brain known to be involved in speech."

            "Through the use of LANGUAGE man is able to gain mastery of his environment, learn from the past, penetrate the future. . . .and man's future is largely under his own control, thanks to the gift of LANGUAGE." (Norman L. Munn, in "The Evolution of Mind," Scientific American, 6, '57). 

Fred Kohler, evolutionist, senses the vast importance of LANGUAGE.  He says, in "Evolution and Human Destiny,"  

            There is little doubt that some several million years ago the ancestors of present-day man consisted of one or several species of primates. . . .Now it is known that the other primates (apes and their relatives) CANNOT BE TAUGHT LANGUAGE to any appreciable extent. . . .(They) lack the necessary organs and nervous equipment. . . .Even if animals are brought up among human beings they develop NO LANGUAGE WHATSOEVER. . . .Animal learning is based upon observation by the individual animal and the trial and error response to such observation.  It is NOT based on any appreciable interchange of information with other members of the species. . . .The entirely new method of learning that is constantly available to man as a result of the development of language, increases the effective experience of each individual. . . and has achieved the developing intelligence of society."

            "It is probable that the circumstances of the dawning of language in man was an extremely important factor responsible for making him what he is today."

            Contemplating on the ability of man to use LANGUAGE, he deducts, "When the ratio of brain development in man, to that in the higher animals, is compared with corresponding ratio of their mental achievements, one finds that man's accomplishments SEEM VASTLY OUT OF PROPORTION.  How then is one to explain that man's ability is so very much greater than one would expect on the basis of his brain development alone, basing the comparison on animal standards?" (See pages 73-82). 

            HOW ARE WE TO ACCOUNT FOR MAN'S VASTLY SUPERIOR MENTAL POWERS AND ACHIEVEMENTS over the animals, out of all proportion to his increased brain size?  The answer is, when God created man, HE endowed him with these privileges, responsibilities and abilities.  How deep is the thought suggested in the Scripture, "God CREATED MAN IN HIS OWN IMAGE AND LIKENESS" Genesis 1:26, 27)!

            Would anyone be so foolish as to suggest but a "missing link" between the chattering monkey or the guttural growls of the Gargantuan gorilla and the smooth-flowing speech of a silver-tongued orator such as William Jennings Bryan?  No, my friends, that gulf is NOT a mere "missing link" — it is a gorge as wide and as deep as the ocean! 

            (10)  The Mind of Man is capable of THINKING: REASONING. 

He holds debates, courts, parliaments — and "bull sessions."  He argues, defends, accuses, tries and condemns.  From childhood on up he forever wants to know "WHY."  He is inquisitive, logical (and at times very illogical) and inventive.  He creates books, machines, paintings and poems.  This ability to think — reason — has given us an Einstein, standing before the blackboard, writing down the equation that unlocked the secrets of the atom!  Between the gibbon in the treetop, clutching a banana, and the engineer at his desk, using trigonometry and the slide rule, is more than a "missing link" — it is a chasm as wide as a  hundred Grand Canyons! 

            (11)  The Mind of Man is capable of Creative IMAGINATION.

Ludwig von Beethoven's "Symphony No. 5 in C-Minor" was a "triumphant masterpiece."

            A contemporary composer, hearing it for the first time, was so moved by it he ejaculated, "unbelievable! . . .Marvelous!  It has so bewildered me (by its charm) that when I wanted to put on my hat, I could not find my head!"  And yet this marvelous, almost matchless, creation ORIGINATED IN BEETHOVEN'S IMAGINATION.  Though he was growing deaf, and could not hear his own playing, he "heard" the full richness of this immortal composition FIRST IN HIS OWN IMAGINATION — and then he set it down in notes.  "The fateful opening chords and the glorious theme have made it the most popular symphony of all time." 

            The mind's ability in the field of "creative imagination" has produced much of the literature of the world — dramas, melodramas, tragedies, sonnets, poems, stories and novels; it also has produced many of the inventions of the world, which were FIRST created in the imagination of the inventor, and then developed into practical realities.

            Frank Barron, Research Psychologist at the University of California, gave this tribute to the "Charm of Imagination."

            "The sorcery and charm of imagination, and the power it gives to the individual to transform his world into a new world of order and delight makes it one of the most treasured of all human capabilities."  (See "The Psychology of Imagination," by Frank Barron, Scientific American, 9-'58).

              Picture a William Shakespeare at his desk, writing one of his immortal sonnets or dramas.  Between a William Shakespeare or a Ludwig von Beethoven and the eight

simple words of "Viki," the world's "most educated chimpanzee," * — words spoken with no understanding of their meaning, but mere words, to obtain a reward, as a dog barks to get a bit of food — there is an expanse that separates as wide as stellar spaces!  No use looking for a missing link; scores of chains are missing!

            * "Viki" is the name of a chimpanzee taken in their home when three days old by Prof. and Mrs. Keith Hayes, at the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, at Orange Park, Florida.  "It was a three-year experiment in bringing up a baby chimpanzee as one would bring up a child."  The story go the experiment is told in the book — "THE APE IN OUR HOUSE," by Kathy Hayes. 

            Beside these capabilities of the mind of man that we have listed, there are scores more, such as "perception," "apperception," "intuition," "analytical capacity," "cognition," etc.

            The greatness of the mind of man can be measured somewhat by his mental achievements.  The mind of man has conceived  and created great telescopes, with which he has surveyed and mapped the heavens, peering billions of light years out into space.  He has made microscopes with which now he can actually see the atom!  He is able also to study the microscopic world as never before, and he is discovering wonders undreamed of a century ago.  He has "cyclotrons" and "accelerators" that cost a hundred million dollars to construct.  He has scaled the highest peaks, travelled over both poles, and is discovering marvels in the abysmal undersea depths.  He has discovered the secrets of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion — and has gone to the moon.  He has discovered and is using many "wonder drugs" and is able to travel in his jet planes faster than the speed of sound.

            Though the mind of man had not attained the measure of mastery over nature as it has now, * Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace knew the vast superiority of the mind of man over the mind of apes — and so he was led to ask Charles Darwin, "HOW DID MAN GET HIS WONDERFUL BRAIN?"

            * The generation-by-generation INCREASE in knowledge that has characterized the history of the human race is neither evolution nor proof of evolution.  Man's brain from the beginning of his creation had the same potential it has now.  Loren C. Eiseley, Prof. of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, says, "There is evidence that Homo sapiens has NOT altered markedly for hundreds of thousands of years." (Scientific American, 11-'50).  Man's brain capacity and his IQ have not increased: the ancient Greeks and more ancient Egyptians and dwellers in the Mesopotamian valley of 5,000 years ago were as intelligent as our generation, though they did not have the vast store of accumulated KNOWLEDGE to draw on that our generation has.

Wallace's question and the modern perplexity engendered by that question are discussed in the Nov. '55 issue of Harper's Magazine, in an article on "WAS DARWIN WRONG ABOUT THE HUMAN BRAIN?" by Prof. Loren C. Eiseley, anthropologist.  We quote from this frank discussion. 

            To explain "the rise of man through the slow, incremental gains of natural selection, Darwin had to assume a long struggle of tribe with tribe. . . .for man had far outpaced his animal associates.  To ignore 'The life Struggle' would have left no explanation as to how humanity by natural selection alone managed to attain an intellectual status so far beyond that of the animals with which it had begun its competition for survival."

            But Wallace pointed out that "MEN WITH SIMPLE CULTURES (such as 'stone age men' in the world today) POSSESS THE SAME BASIC INTELLECTUAL POWERS which the Darwinians maintained could only be elaborated by competitive struggle."

            "Man and his rise now appear short in time — EXPLOSIVELY SHORT.  There is every reason to believe that whatever the. . . forces involved in the production of the human brain, a long, slow competition of human groups would NOT result in such similar mental potentialities among all peoples everywhere.  SOMETHING — some other factor — HAS ESCAPED OUR SCIENTIFIC ATTENTION.*

* Yes, Dr. Eiseley, something HAS escaped the "scientific attention" of most of our scientists today — and that "something" obviously is the fact that GOD CREATED MAN AND HIS VASTLY SUPERIOR BRAIN.

            Loren C. Eiseley continues, "There are certain strange bodily characters which mark man as being MORE than the product of dog-eat-dog competition with his fellows:

            "(1)  He possesses a peculiar larval nakedness, difficult to explain on 'survival' principles;

            "(2)  His period of helpless infancy and childhood are prolonged;

            "(3)  He has aesthetic impulses;

            "(4)  He is totally dependent, in the achievement of human status, upon the careful training he receives in human society.

            "(5)  Unlike solitary species of animals, he cannot develop alone — he has suffered a major loss of precise instinctive controls of his behavior.  In place of this biological lack, society and parents condition the infant and promote his long-drawn training;

            "(6)  We are now in a position to see the wonder and terror of the human predicament: MAN IS TOTALLY DEPENDENT ON SOCIETY.

            "(7)  The profound shock of the leap from animal to human status. . . involved the growth of prolonged bonds of affection. . . .because otherwise its naked helpless offspring would perish.

            "(8)  Modern science would go on to add that many of the characters of man, such as his LACK OF FUR, THIN SKULL, and GLOBULAR HEAD suggest mysterious changes in growth rates. . . which hint that the forces creating man drew him fantastically out of the very childhood of his brutal forerunners.  Once more the words of Wallace come back to haunt us: 'WE MAY SAFELY INFER THAT THE SAVAGE POSSESSES A BRAIN CAPABLE, if cultivated, and developed, of performing work of a kind and degree FAR BEYOND WHAT HE EVER REQUIRES TO DO'!" *

            * We now know Wallace was right.  Modern communications and transportation, plus societal adjustments, have abundantly proven the point.  "Men with black skins, whose fathers lived in grass huts and hunted lions with spears, NOW STAND BEWIGGED IN COURT, pleading cases with an Oxford accent.  Men with yellow skins, whose fathers used their wives as beasts of burden to plough their fields NOW CROUCH IN COCKPITS OF MIG-7's, as they roar over the Formosa strait." (See "Races in Turmoil," Newsweek, 9-15-58).

            Even Fred Hoyle admits (in Evolution and Human Destiny") that "members of primitive cultures possess a brain potential EQUIVALENT TO THAT OF CIVILIZED MAN. . . .An infant removed from such a group (having a primitive or "stone-age" culture) will on the average share the conceptual characteristics of the society he is raised in."

            Obviously, all men everywhere, whether occidental, oriental, "civilized" or in a primitive "stone age culture," HAVE ABOUT THE SAME RELATIVE BRAIN SIZE, and the same MENTAL POTENTIAL.  In other words, "civilization" is built on ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE rather than on superior mental powers or brain potential. 

            Then Prof. Eiseley makes this startling statement about "the most miraculous creation. . . .the human brain." 

            "Today we can make a partial answer to Wallace's question, SINCE THE EXPOSURE OF THE PILTDOWN HOAX all of the evidence at our command — and it is considerable — points to man in his present form, AS BEING ONE OF THE YOUNGEST AND NEWEST OF ALL EARTH'S SWARMING INHABITANTS. . . .Most of our knowledge of him (man) . . . is now confined, since the loss of Piltdown to the last half of the Ice Age.  If we pass backward beyond this point. . . it is (to the scientist) like peering into the mists floating over an unknown landscape.  Here and there through the swirling vapor one catches a glimpse of a shambling figure, or a half-wild primordial face stares back at one from some momentary opening in the fog.  Then, JUST AS ONE GRASPS AT A CLUE, the long gray twilight settles in and the WRAITHS AND THE HALF-HEARD VOICES PASS AWAY. . . .

            "Ironically enough, science, which can show us the flints and the broken skulls of our dead fathers, HAS YET TO EXPLAIN HOW WE HAVE COME SO FAR SO FAST, nor has it any completely satisfactory answer to the question asked by Wallace long ago.  Those who would revile us by pointing to an ape at the foot of our family tree grasp little of the awe with which the modern scientist now puzzles over man's lonely and SUPREME ASCENT.  The true secret of Piltdown, though thought by the public to be merely the revelation of an unscrupulous forgery, lies in the fact that it has forced science to re-examine the history OF THE MOST MIRACULOUS CREATION IN THE WORLD — the human brain." (Caps ours); condensed from "Was Darwin Wrong about the Human Brain?" in Harpers Magazine, 11-'55).

            Prof. Eiseley still clings to the empty shell of evolution; but he virtually admits that Wallace must be right.  The amazing Brain of Man demands a special Creation.    In fact, Prof. Eiseley uses these words, directly quoted — "The most miraculous creation in the world — the human brain." 

            Part III. MAN ALSO HAS AN EMOTIONAL, MORAL AND SPIRITUAL NATURE. 

            In addition to his superb brain and mind, man has a soul, a "psyche," — a moral, spiritual and emotional nature — that distinguishes him from the lower animals. 

            After creating man, God breathed into his (man's) nostrils "the breath of life" and man became a LIVING SOUL.  See Genesis 2:7.

             (1)  Man's Emotional Nature.  In addition to man's powerful INSTINCTS * — far higher and different from what animals have — man has a highly complex EMOTIONAL nature, far above and beyond what animals have.

            * Psychologists speak of the "parental instinct," "the fighting instinct," "the fear instinct," "the instinct of self sacrifice," the instincts of "sympathy, suggestion, curiosity, wonder, and imitation," as well as other instincts of lesser importance.

            In animals such emotions and qualities as fear and hatred are largely instinctive.  But in man we see the full development of a broad gamut of emotions and moral qualities — both good and bad — that includes love and hate, joy and sorrow, peace and anxiety, trust and unbelief, hope and despair, satisfaction and frustration, elation and despondence, mercy and vengeance, pride and humility, courage and cowardice, approval and disgust, ambition and apathy, perseverance and pliability, nobility and meanness, gratitude and ingratitude, envy and good will, steadfastness and vacillation, zeal and lethargy, righteousness and unrighteousness, independence and dependence, — and a hundred more emotions and moral qualities that have enriched or degraded our lives and our literature. *

            * The richness of our language and our literature depends largely on the wealth of emotional experiences of men: patriotism, romance, love, hate, nobility, meanness, fidelity, ambition, wonder, curiosity, etc.  The intriguing fabric of human experiences, made possible by a wide range of deep emotions, it is utterly unknown to any animal.  We refer to "the patience of Job."  "the courage of Richard the lion-hearted," "the zeal of the evangelist," etc. 

            Consider this brief list, then think of the paucity of the emotional life in animals. The few emotions animals seem to have are more instinctive and are far more simple than man's vast domain of rich emotions.  How can one account for the GREAT GULF between the emotional life of animals and that of man? The only answer is, Man is a special creation, with God-like gifts and qualities of mind and soul. 

            (2)  Man's Esthetic Nature.  Inherent in the soul of man are such abilities and qualities as an appreciation of things beautiful and harmonious, as expressed in music, the arts, song and poetry.  We can enjoy a symphony and a sonata, a poem, a lovely woman and a beautiful picture, a gorgeous sunset, a majestic snow-capped peak, a delicate fern frond, an exquisite lily or orchid, as well as the scintillating grandeur of the distant nebulae.  We are inspired by Michelangelo's "David," or "Moses;" we are enchanted by the ceiling of the Sistine chapel or Raffael's Madonna; we revel in the art gallery as well as in the pristine beauty of the everglades and the rapturous song of the nightingale.  We look with awe at a sunset over lake Victoria Nyanza, and are enthralled by the vista from the top of Pike's peak.  The soul of an ape, a monkey, or a dog, has NO RESPONSE WHATEVER to a poem, a sunset or a beautiful painting, but finds its satisfaction in a banana, a bag of nuts, or a bone.  How can one account for this tremendous gulf?  It becomes increasingly obvious that man is a special creation — created in the very image and likeness of God. (Genesis 1:26, 27).

            (3)  Man's Unique Moral Nature.  When God created man He made him a free moral agent with the power of CHOICE.  This great gift also involved a paralleling great responsibility: blessing would follow a right choice, judgment would follow a wrong choice.  Unquestionably, this gift of a free will is man's highest endowment.  After his creation, man (Adam and Eve) were put to the test — and they failed, and rebelled against God's government.  So our original parents sinned (Genesis 3:1-7), and through them SIN and DEATH entered the race (see Romans 5:12).  We now observe in the world the double phenomena: universal SIN and universal DEATH.  Animals, in the same world judged by sin, also suffer the experience of death.  See Romans 8:20-23.

            Why moral evil is present in mankind, without ANY EVIDENCE WHATEVER OF THE GRADUAL MORAL BETTERMENT OF THE RACE * (save that which results from the influence of the Bible) is also an inexplicable phenomenon that utterly refutes the theory of evolution.  According to evolution the morals of mankind should gradually improve — but they do not.

            * Whatever moral betterment the race has experienced has usually been the result of the acceptance of the teachings of the bible.  When so-called "civilized" nations like modern Germany DEPART from historic Christianity, a Hitlerian barbarism takes over, resulting in atrocities of the worst sort, such as the attempted genocide of the Jews, and the horrors of brainwashing.  When men reject Christianity and turn to communism — dialectic materialism — similar evils follow:  mass murders, the enslavement of large segments of society and torturous brainwashings.  To the extent that our own country has departed from Bible teachings and Bible standards, the evils of materialism, state socialism, juvenile delinquency, alcoholism and crime have proportionately increased. 

            Herbert Spencer glibly spoke (as do modern evolutionists and communists) of "the universal law of progress which ordains that surely evil and immortality disappear. . . .surely must man become perfect."

            History tells us that the horrors of wars have been getting steadily WORSE, especially the wars of our century.  Hitler's crimes against the Jews and Communism's "brainwashing" techniques and torture surpasses the tortures of the dark ages. 

            The Gospel facts of (1) Man's origin by special creation in the image of God (Genesis 1:26, 27);  (2)  His "Fall" and the entrance of sin (Genesis 3:1-7) and  (3)  His consequent judgment — death and separation from God; and  (4)  His "redemption" as a race through the atonement of Christ (Romans 5:12-19; 1 Corinthians 15:3, 4); and (5)  the "salvation" of all individuals in the race who repent and accept Christ and His Gospel (John 3:16; Romans 10:9, 10; Acts 2:21; Acts 16:31) are fully unfolded in the New Testament and are the subjects of DIVINE REVELATION in the Bible.  The amazing thing is, the Divine Revelation of the facts of the special creation of man, and his subsequent fall and ruin are abundantly attested to by facts of human experience.  Evolution has no acceptable way of explaining either the phenomena of SIN and DEATH in human experience, or the REGENERATION of believers in Christ.

            Man has a conscience that enables him to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil.  Man has a will that enables him to resist evil and say "no" to wrong — but it also enables him to yield to sin and do wrong.  Man's moral accountability to his Creator is unique in all creation; no animal is so gifted and honored by the Creator.

            (4)  Man's Spiritual Nature.  God not only gave man a superior soul, He also gave him a spirit that make him GOD-CONSCIOUS.  Men everywhere instinctively KNOW there is a Higher Power, and that they must give account to Him.  The base religions of the world seek to placate evil spirits, and so seek to avoid retribution for their failures.  But though the religion of many cultures is base, yet all men everywhere have some sort of "religion," the perfect witness to the fact that all men are created with a SPIRIT as well as a soul. 

            Scattered over the world are several hundred tribes without a written language, living in various types of primitive cultures.  Among them are the Negritos of the Philippines, scores of wild Indian tribes of Central and South America, the aborigines of Australia, the Ituri pigmies of Africa, the Onges, one of the most primitive of all cultures, who live on the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal — so degraded they do not even know how to make a fire; the Wobangs, white pigmies of the interior of New Guinea; native Papuans; Samongs, the tree people who live in remote forests in the East Indian Archipelago; the Botocudos, who live in interior Brazil, and "have not yet reached the old Stone Age level of development."  They slit the lower lip and ear lobes and insert large wooden plugs in them.  Then there are also the Kubus, who rove the jungles of Southern Sumatra, said to be "the most primitive tribe on the earth;" and the Troglodytes of Southern Tunisia who live in caves.  ALL OF THESE PRIMITIVE PEOPLE HAVE SOME FORM OF RELIGION — proof that they are "God-conscious" and that they believe they must give account to a Superior Being.  True, their worship is perverted — but the SPIRIT that makes the knowledge of God possible is there, even though it is depraved. 

            It is a miracle of God's grace that He did endow man with the ability  to KNOW HIM and to worship Him.  To man alone, as far as life on earth is concerned, eternal life is offered through Christ.  We read that "Christ tasted death for every MAN" (Hebrews 2:9), and that "God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son that whosoever believeth on Him should not perish but have everlasting life" (John 3:16).

Further Evidence that Man did Not Descend from Monkeys, Apes or their Relatives 

            Darwin taught in his DESCENT OF MAN that the early ancestors of man must have been "more or less monkey-like animals" of the anthropoid group.  Many attempts have been made to discover the "MISSING LINK" between man and apes, or between man and monkeys, but "NO MISSING LINK HAS EVER BEEN FOUND" (Popular Science).  Because of this fact — truly terrifying to the evolutionists — many biologists today "no longer believe that man descended directly from. . . the apes."  Most evolutionists now teach that man descended directly from a "common ancestor" of apes, monkeys and men.  " 'Proconsul' is probably the common ancestor of apes and man" (Life).  Actually, no one seems to know what this "common ancestor" — called "Proconsul" by some — was like; * it exists only in the imagination of evolutionists.  There is no such creature.

            * Prof. Julian Huxley says, "Ten or twenty million years ago man's ancestral stock branched off from the rest of the anthropoids, and these relatives of man have been forced into their own lines of Specialization." (Evolution: The Modern Synthesis).

            Francis Vere, criticising Prof. Huxley's statement, says, "This assertion is totally unwarranted; there is not one tittle of evidence to support it. 'Ten to twenty million years' give Prof. Huxley a good slice of time in which to indulge his fancy."  But remember the words of Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clarke, F. R. S., in a lecture at Oxford, "We must admit that WE HAVE NO FACTUAL EVIDENCE on which to base an answer to the question, 'When did the "hominoid" and "anthropoid" lines separate?'  THE FOSSIL RECORD OF THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HOMINID EVOLUTION IS COMPLETELY BLANK." ("Requiem For Evolution," by Francis Vere). 

            Since no MISSING LINK between man and apes has been found, science now theorizes that "man and the anthropoid apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, gibbons and the orangutans) sprang from the same limb of a common family tree.  One branch is represented by the apes, the other by man."  (Scientific American).             

            This is a favorite trick of modern evolutionists.  "They assume that the actual 'ancestors' of all 'specialized types' are some 'generalized ancestors' for which no fossils can be found." (W. Henning).

            this modern evasion actually greatly weakens  their argument and focuses attention to the "VAST GULF" that actually does exist between apes and men.  And by further removing the original stock from which "man and apes descended" they themselves create a vastly greater gulf to bridge!  If the step is great between apes and men — and Huxley said that the gap between monkeys and apes is greater than that apes and men — IT IS FAR GREATER BETWEEN SOME SUPPOSED 'PROCONSUL' (lower on the scale than apes) AND MEN.  In other words, if we can prove there is an "unbridgeable chasm" between apes and men, we also demonstrate that there is a far greater chasm between man and the supposed, lower-than-monkeys "Proconsul." 

Argument for Evolution from "Comparative Anatomy" 

            Evolutionists argue that "all elements in the human skeleton are 'readily comparable' to the similar bones in apes:  both have a cranium, both have ribs, both have the femur (leg) bones, etc.  They further call attention to similarities in the main body organs: heart, lungs, eyes, ears, etc, and that "the brain of the apes. . . .has the same convolutions as man's."

             But similarity of anatomy is accounted for by the fact that apes, monkeys and men live in a similar environment — our world, with its atmosphere, water, chemical elements and food types— and so all apes, monkeys, and men NEED a heart, lungs, skull, brain, legs, eyes, etc., to live in the common environment.  Similarity of anatomy does not prove evolution any more than the similarity between a Lincoln and a Ford means that the Lincoln "evolved" from the Ford.  It simply means that THE SAME INTELLIGENCE MADE THEM BOTH.

            Instead of being mislead by the similarities into accepting the evolution dogma, let us note well the striking DIFFERENCES between apes and men — differences so great as to create a chasm unbridged and unbridgeable by any theory of "natural selection."  Between these two realms — apes and men — there are NO MISSING LINKS, * either in the world of living animals or in the world of fossils.

            * "Missing Link" is used here as it is commonly used.  It has come to indicate a fossil or animal that bridges gaps between various major or lesser groups. 

There are Many Kinds of Monkeys and Apes 

            Before we list some of the many differences between apes and men, we call attention to the fact that there are scores of kinds of monkeys and several kinds of apes (gorillas, gibbons, chimpanzees and orangutans) all radically different from each other; whereas men, the world over, are built on practically the same pattern!

            It is worthy of mention that man is the only species in his genus and the only genus in his family!  This is a powerful argument for Creation: for man is UNRELATED.

            Apes are tropical animals ranging from the three-foot Gibbon, a tree-dweller, to the six-foot, terrifying Gorilla, with the fiendish features, who may be several times heavier than man.  Science agrees, "Neither Gibbon nor Gorilla can in any way be considered a Missing Link."  When an ungainly Orangutan seeks to stand upright, its arms reach almost to the ground; it has comparatively short legs.

            The male Proboscis monkey has a grotesquely elongated "Roman" style nose (snout).  Why?  Shall we ape Darwin's line of argument and suggest that this odd nasal appendage developed by "natural selection" because the female of the species preferred males with such unusual protuberances?  Nonsense!

            There is another natural "clown" among the monkeys — the male mandrill.  It is a short-tailed baboon, with a swollen blue face, a red nose and red lips, a yellow beard, and with swellings below its eyes.  It is a rare caricature!  If the female of the species were responsible for this apparition, she surely did a good job of it!

            The pigmy marmoset monkey is as small as a squirrel.  The sacred monkeys of India are "whitish animals with blackish faces," having great projecting eyebrows. 

            From which of these species did man descend?  And from whence came the other apes and monkeys?  Did man descend, let us ask, from the Mandrill baboon, nature's caricature? or from the fiendish gorilla?  No evolutionist today is foolish enough to claim man's direct descent from any one of the living apes or monkeys; but he cleverly evades the issue by fabricating an imaginary "proconsul" that is as unreal as his "pro-avis" (the missing link that is still missing, between reptiles and birds).  There just aren't such animals as the "pro-avis" and the "proconsul."

            Since evolution teaches the GRADUAL change from proconsul to men, we ask — WHERE ARE THE INTERMEDIARY STAGES?  No such "links" exist, either in the world of living animals or in the fossil world.  The only place they exist is in the imagination of the evolutionists! 

Many Authorities call Attention to the STRIKING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN APES AND MEN 

            "Man with his highly developed brain, his upright posture, his sense of duty and his appreciation of beauty is VERY DIFFERENT from the lower primates" (Book of Knowledge, Vol. 1, page 205).

            "Apes have long arms; men short.  Men have chins; apes have none.  Apes have massive canine teeth; men do not.  Apes can not oppose the thumb to the fingers; men can.  Lacking this, no ape could be a competent tool-using animal." (Article on Anthropology, Pageant magazine, 10-'47).

            "HOW TO HUMANIZE APE — Reshape his hands, develop pelvis, refine vocal organs, change the anatomy of his brain to produce man's ability for abstraction, symbolism and foresight; change the anatomy of his nervous system so he can develop skills basic to our culture."  (Dr. Keith J. Hayes, Yerkes Laboratory of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Fla.,).

            "There is a subtle and misleading omission by scientists of facts opposing the supposed ape and man similarity.  Why do they not tell us that female humans have a membrane (hymen) which female apes do not have, and that human males lack a bone (baculum) which apes have?  Female apes have a poorly developed breast.  From man's much longer head-hair to the obviously different foot, from buttocks to chest-rib shape — with its longer collar bone — the entire ape is APE, not human.

            "The sperm and ovum differ.  The diet is different.  The human child, after birth, is greatly changed in leg length, and its skull will not calcify for some time.  This is not so of the ape.  The apes brain is different, lacking the vital 'Broca (speech) area'.

            "Our research has shown FULLY 150 VITAL DIFFERENCES between apes and men — not to speak of mental, moral and spiritual matters.  And probably NO APE ORGAN OR STRUCTURE IS OR CAN BE QUITE LIKE A HUMAN'S." (Professor Leroy Victor Cleveland, Author, Anti-Evolution Compendium).

            As a matter of fact, there are thousands of vital differences between apes and men, too numerous to list.  But here are a few others of the more obvious: 

            Adapted to arboreal life, a chimpanzee before it is a month old can grasp a branch and suspend its own weight for more than a minute.  (Dr. Keith Hayes).  This is utterly impossible for a human baby of that age.  Babies, as we all know, are born much more dependent on their parents and on society than apes or monkeys — and they stay dependent on society for a much longer time than any other form of life on earth.

            Apes and monkeys spend at least part of their time in trees, and some of them rarely descend to the ground.  Men live on the ground in houses.  Apes sleep in crudely constructed nests.

            Apes have fur;  men must wear clothes. * Men light and use fires; Apes neither make a fire nor put sticks on a fire to keep it burning.  Apes do not plant or keep gardens.  Apes neither cry nor laugh.  Apes live mostly on leaves, buds and fruit.  Most monkeys have cheek pouches on the inside of their mouths where they can stuff extra food they gather.  Men store their extra food in midriff bulges or double chins.

            * In his DESCENT OF MAN Darwin explained this difference by saying that many females liked their monkey mates with less hair — and so there gradually evolved HAIRLESS MAN!  This is totally unscientific, for monkeys live in hordes, and are promiscuous.  They are either pregnant or nursing a baby, almost all the time; so they do not seem to have much concern about what male monkey is their mate, whether hairy or not. 

BONES 

            "Every bone of a gorilla," admitted Prof., Huxley, "bears marks by which it might be distinguished from the corresponding bones of man."

            In half-erect monkeys the backbone is so curved that the weight of the body is bound to fall forward unless a very special effort is made; but in adult men the backbone is such that the weight of the body is well-balanced and distributed in an upright position.

            The pelvis of an ape is not designed for an upright posture.  "Man stands alone because man alone STANDS." 

The Foot 

            If anthropologists want to determine whether a skeleton is that of a man or ape, let them examine the FOOT, not the skull.  If they could examine the brain inside the skull, they could easily decide if it be that of a man or an ape, for the brain of a man has certain lobes that the brain of an ape does not have.  But the brain soon disintegrates after death.  Mere skulls may be very misleading.  The skulls of males, females and children ARE ALL OF DIFFERENT SIZES, with considerable variation is shapes — both for men and apes.  Then too there are skulls deformed from diseases.  BUT BY EXAMINING THE FOOT ONE CAN KNOW IMMEDIATELY IF IT BE THE "HIND HAND" OF AN APE OR THE FOOT OF A MAN.  In the apes, the big toe is really a thumb — made to grab with.  Man's toes are unique: they are short and small and not like a thumb.  The specialized foot of man is made to walk on and not to grab things with.

             "It is our FOOT, not our hand, that is the ONE PECULIAR FEATURE of our limb skeleton.  Our ape ancestors were not four-footed types, but four-handed ones, and their 'hind hands' were better grasping organs than the front ones!  (Man and the Vertebrates.  Chapter on "The Human Body," pages 373, 374).

            All will agree with Sir Arthur Keith, "A child has never been seen with an anthropoid foot."  "And what is more striking still," adds Prof., F. Wood Jones, "the human foot as soon as it is formed in the embryo is of characteristic HUMAN TYPE." (Problems of Man's Ancestry," Page 38).

            One more significant fact:  "Apes are dying out.  It seems probable that before long they will be extinct."  On the other hand, the populations of mankind are rapidly increasing, the world over. 

SUMMARY

             It is clear that the body of man, starting with two minute cells, is so complex, so intricate and involved in operation, that it had to be created by an all-powerful Intelligence.  It is equally clear that brain and mind of man, with its amazing powers of speech, reason, memory and imagination, is so fantastically wonderful it had to be created by a Master Genius, infinite in His creative resources.  To believe that such marvels as the eye and the ear, the brain and the hand, the liver and the blood, could develop by random mutations, or natural selection, is the height of absurdity.

            The gulf between men and apes, or between men and some imagined predecessor of the apes, in every conceivable realm: physical, mental, moral, emotional, spiritual, is so vast — and with no "missing links" to span the gulf — that one is forced to the conclusion that man could NOT have evolved from the lower animals, but was, as the Bible says, "created in the image of God."

            Few prominent evolutionists in recent years have come so close to admitting that evolution is an unproven and unproveable theory as Prof. Eiseley.  Listen to his picturesque portrayal of man's dilemma; this is what happens when man rejects the Biblical account and tries to solve the problem of man's origin.

             "There are great gaps of millions of years from which WE DO NOT POSSESS A SINGLE COMPLETE MONKEY SKELETON, let alone the skeleton of a human fore-runner. . . . For the whole Tertiary Period which involves something like 60 to 80 million years, we have to read the story of Primate evolution from a few handfuls of broken bones and teeth. . . .

            In the end we may shake our heads, baffled. . . . It is as though we stood at the heart of a maze and no longer remembered how we came there. . . .Until further discoveries accumulate, each student will perhaps inevitably read a little of his own temperament into the record. . . . .They will catch glimpses of an elfin human figure which will mock us from a remote glade in the forest of time.  OTHERS JUST AS COMPETENT WILL SAY THAT THIS ELUSIVE. . . . ELF IS A DREAM, SPUN FROM OUR DISGUISED HUMAN LONGING FOR AN ANCESTOR LIKE OURSELVES." (Caps Ours. Prof. Loren C. Eiseley, Prof., of Anthropology, University of Pa., in the June, '56 "Scientific American')

           We do not agree with all Prof. Eiseley teaches, but this inference he suggests is certainly true:  authorities reach different conclusions from the evidence available.  There is no positive evidence to refute creationism, but much proof that neither the body nor mind of man could have evolved from animals.  Besides, we have the clear teaching of God's Word that He created man in His own image (Gen. 1:26-27 

CONTINUE